Free Shipping on orders over $25

Book Details

  • Paperback
  • Bookstore's Wholesale Price: $61.00
  • September 2009
  • ISBN: 978-0-393-93385-7
  • 912 pages
  • Volume(s): 2
  • Territory Rights: Worldwide

A History of Modern Europe

From the French Revolution to the Present

Third Edition


Volume(s): 2

See all options and formats starting at

John Merriman (Author, Yale University)


A classic in its field, loved by instructors and students for its narrative flair, humor, authority, and comprehensive coverage. More than 100,000 copies sold!

Available in both one-volume and two-volume paperback editions, A History of Modern Europe presents a panoramic survey of modern Europe from the Renaissance to the present day. A single author lends a unified approach and consistent style throughout, with an emphasis on the connections of events and people over time.

The Third Edition, like the two before it, is authoritative and up-to-date. New to the Third Edition is the theme of empire. From the imperial rivalries between France and Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, through the rise and fall of the Ottoman Turkish empire, and on into the imperial history of the twentieth century—decolonization, the spread of the Soviet empire, and the imperial power of the United States—the theme of empire helps students find commonalities among the events of European history.


    List of Maps




    Chapter 12 The French Revolution

    1. The Old Regime in Crisis
      1. Long-Term Causes of the French Revolution
      2. The Financial Crisis
    2. The First Stages of the Revolution
      1. Convoking the Estates-General
      2. Storming of the Bastille
      3. The Great Fear and the Night of August 4
    3. Consolidating the Revolution
      1. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
      2. “The Baker, the Baker’s Wife, and the Baker’s Little Boy”
      3. Reforming the Church and Clergy
      4. The Reforms of 1791
      5. Resistance and Revolution
      6. The Flight to Varennes
    4. War and the Second Revolution
      1. Reactions to the French Revolution in Europe
      2. A Second Revolution
      3. Counter-Revolution
      4. The Terror
    5. The Final Stages of the Revolution
      1. Thermidor
      2. The Directory: Politics and Society
      3. Instability
      4. The Eighteenth Brumaire
    6. Perspectives on the French Revolution
      1. Europe an Responses to the Revolution
      2. Historians’ Views of the Revolution

    Chapter 13 Napoleon and Europe

    1. Napoleon’s Rise to Power
      1. The Young Bonaparte
      2. Napoleon and the Revolution
    2. Consolidation of Power
      1. Establishment of the Consulate
      2. The Concordat
      3. Napoleon’s Leadership
      4. Wars of Conquest and Empire
      5. The Corsican Warrior
    3. The Foundations of the French Empire
      1. Institutional Foundations: Imperial Centralization
      2. Legal Foundations: The Napoleonic Code
      3. Social Foundations: The Imperial Hierarchy
    4. The Tide Turns against Napoleon
      1. The Continental System
      2. The Peninsular War
      3. Stirrings of Nationalism in Napoleonic Europe
      4. Military Reforms in Prussia and Austria
      5. The Empire’s Decline and the Russian Invasion
      6. The Defeat of Napoleon
    5. Monarchical Restoration and Napoleon’s Return
      1. The Bourbon Restoration
      2. The 100 Days
    6. Napoleon’s Legacy

    Chapter 14 The Industrial Revolution

    1. Preconditions for Transformation
      1. Demographic Explosion
      2. The Expanding Agricultural Base
      3. Trains and Steamboats
    2. A Variety of National Industrial Experiences
      1. In the Vanguard: Britain’s Era of Mechanization
      2. Industrialization in France
      3. Industrialization in the German States
      4. Sparse Industrialization in Southern and Eastern Europe
    3. The Middle Classes
      1. Diversity of the Middle Classes
      2. The Entrepreneurial Ideal and Social Mobility
      3. Rising Professions
    4. Middle-Class Culture
      1. Marriage and Family
      2. Separate Spheres and the Cult of Domesticity
      3. A Culture of Comfort
      4. Education
      5. Religion
    5. The Ambiguities of Liberalism: Voluntarism versus State Intervention
    6. Impact of the Industrial Revolution
      1. Continuities on the Land
      2. Urbanization
      3. On the Move
    7. Industrial Work and Workers
      1. Gender and Family in the Industrial Age
      2. Child Labor
      3. The Laboring Poor
      4. Class Consciousness
      5. Workers’ Associations and Social Protest
    8. The Origins of European Socialism
      1. Utopian Socialists
      2. Practical Socialists
      3. Karl Marx and the Origins of “Scientific Socialism”
    9. Conclusion

    Chapter 15 Liberal Challenges to Restoration Europe

    1. The Post-Napoleonic Settlement
      1. The Treaty of Paris
      2. Diplomatic Maneuvering at the Congress of Vienna
      3. The Congress System
      4. The Concert of Europe
    2. Restoration Europe
      1. The Restoration of Monarchs, Nobles, and Clergy
      2. Conservative Ideology
    3. Liberalism
      1. Liberals and Politics
      2. Laissez-Faire
    4. Romanticism
      1. Conservative Origins
      2. Romantic Literature and Painting
      3. Romantic Music
    5. Stirrings of Revolt
      1. Liberal Revolts in Spain, Portugal, and Italy
      2. Stirrings in Germany
      3. Cracks in the Congress of Europe: The Greek Revolt
      4. The Decembrist Revolt in Russia
      5. France: The Bourbon Restoration and the Revolution of 1830
    6. Other Liberal Assaults on the Old Order
      1. Independence for Belgium
      2. Liberal Successes in Switzerland
    7. Nationalist Dreams
      1. The Revolt in Poland
      2. Uprisings in Italy and Spain
      3. German Nationalism in Central Europe
    8. Crisis and Compromise in Great Britain
      1. Religious and Electoral Reform
      2. The Reform Bill of 1832
      3. Chartism and the Repeal of the Corn Laws
    9. Conclusion

    Chapter 16 The Revolutions of 1848

    1. Revolutionary Mobilization
      1. The February Revolution in France
      2. Revolution in the German States
      3. Revolution in Central Europe
      4. Revolution in the Italian States
    2. The Elusive Search for Revolutionary Consensus
      1. Crisis in France
      2. The Frankfurt Parliament
    3. Counter-Revolution
      1. Counter-Revolution in Habsburg Central Europe
      2. Prussian-Austrian Rivalry
      3. The Counter-Revolution in the Italian States
      4. The Agony of the French Second Republic
    4. The Legacy of 1848


    Chapter 17 The Era of National Unification

    1. The Political Unification of Italy
      1. Leadership for Italian Unification
      2. Alliances and Warfare to Further
      3. Italian Unification
      4. Garibaldi and the Liberation of Southern Italy
      5. Italy Unified
      6. Limits to Unification
      7. Italian Politics
      8. The Rise of Italian Nationalism
    2. The Unification of Germany
      1. William I, Bismarck, and the Resolution of the Constitutional Crisis
      2. Alliances and Warfare to Establish Prussian Leadership
      3. The North German Confederation
      4. The Franco-Prussian War and German Unification
      5. Nationalist versus Internationalist Movements
      6. William II and German Nationalism
    3. National Awakenings in the Habsburg Lands
      1. Diversity and Cohesion in the Habsburg Empire
      2. Repression of Nationalism in the Habsburg Empire
      3. Political Crisis and Foreign Policy Disasters
      4. Creation of the Dual Monarchy
      5. Ethnic Tensions and Nationalist Movements in the Dual Monarchy
    4. Conclusion

    Chapter 18 The Dominant Powers in the Age of Liberalism: Parliamentary Britain, Tsarist Russia, and Republican France

    1. Victorian Britain
      1. The Victorian Consensus
      2. The Crimean War
      3. The Liberal Era of Victorian Politics
      4. The Reform Bill of 1867
      5. Other Victorian Reforms
      6. Mass Politics Come to Britain
      7. Irish Home Rule
      8. New Contours in British Political Life
    2. Tsarist Russia
      1. Stirrings of Reform in Russia
      2. The Emancipation of the Serfs
      3. The Expansion of the Russian Empire
      4. Nihilists and Populists
      5. Alexander III’s Empire
      6. Unrest, Reform, and Revolution
      7. Lenin and the Bolsheviks
      8. The Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
      9. The Revolution of 1905
    3. France: Second Empire and Third Republic
      1. The Authoritarian Empire
      2. Economic Growth
      3. The “Liberal Empire”
      4. The Franco-Prussian War and the Siege of Paris
      5. The Paris Commune
    4. Republican France
      1. Monarchists and Republicans
      2. The Third Republic
      3. General Boulanger and Captain Dreyfus
      4. The Radical Republic
    5. Conclusion

    Chapter 19 Rapid Industrialization and Its Challenges, 1870–1914

    1. The Second Industrial Revolution
      1. New Technology and Scientific Discoveries
      2. The Electric and Chemical Revolutions
      3. Regional Variations
      4. Travel and Communications
      5. Further Scientific Discoveries: “A Boundless Future” and Its Uncertainties
    2. Social Change
      1. Demographic Boom
      2. Improving Standards of Living
      3. Migration and Emigration
      4. The Changing World of Work
      5. Industrialization and the Working-Class Family
      6. Teeming Cities
      7. Social Mobility
    3. Cultural Changes: Education and Religion
      1. Education
      2. The Decline of Religious Practice
    4. The Consumer Explosion
      1. Leisure in the Belle Époque
      2. Sports in Mass Society
    5. Conclusion

    Chapter 20 Political and Cultural Responses to a Rapidly Changing World

    1. State Social Reform
      1. The Trade Union Movement
      2. Socialists
      3. Christian Socialism
      4. The Anarchists
      5. Syndicalists
      6. The Quest for Women’s Rights
    2. Cultural Ferment
      1. Realism
      2. Impressionism
      3. Social Theorists’ Analyses of Industrial Society
      4. Nietzsche’s Embrace of the Irrational
      5. Freud and the Study of the Irrational
      6. Avant-Garde Artists and Writers and the Rapid Pace of Modern Life
      7. The Avant-Garde’s Break with Rationalism
    3. Conclusion

    Chapter 21 The Age of Europe an Imperialism

    1. From Colonialism to Imperialism
    2. The “New Imperialism” and the Scramble for Africa
      1. British and French Imperial Rivalry
      2. Germany and Italy Join the Race
      3. Standoff in the Sudan: The Fashoda Affair
      4. The British in South Africa and the Boer War
    3. The Europe an Powers in Asia
      1. India, Southeast Asia, and China
      2. Japan and China: Contrasting Experiences
      3. The United States in Asia
    4. Domination of Indigenous Peoples
      1. Social Darwinism
      2. Technological Domination and Indigenous Subversion
      3. Imperial Economies
      4. Colonial Administrations
    5. Assessing the Goals of Europe an Imperialism
      1. The “Civilizing Mission”
      2. The Economic Rationale
      3. Imperialism and Nationalism
    6. Conclusion


    Chapter 22 The Great War

    1. Entangling Alliances
      1. Irreconcilable Hatreds
      2. The Alliance System
      3. Germany and Austria-Hungary against Russia
      4. Germany Encircled: Russia and France Ally
      5. Anglo-German Rivalry
      6. British-French Rapprochement
      7. The First Moroccan Crisis (1905)
    2. The Europe of Two Armed Camps, 1905–1914
      1. The Balkan Tinderbox
      2. Instability in Turkey
      3. The Bosnian Crisis of 1908
      4. The Second Moroccan Crisis (1911)
      5. The Balkan Wars
    3. The Final Crisis
      1. Assassination in Sarajevo
      2. The Ultimatum
      3. The Schlieffen Plan
      4. “A Jolly Little War”
    4. The Outbreak of War
      1. Opening Hostilities
    5. The Changing Nature of War
      1. Trench Warfare
      2. War in the Air and on the Seas
      3. The Home Front
    6. The War Rages On
      1. The Eastern Front
      2. The War in the Middle East, Africa, and the Far East
      3. The Western Front
      4. Futility and Stalemate
      5. Soldiers and Civilians
    7. The Final Stages of the War
      1. The United States Enters the War
      2. Russia Withdraws from the War
      3. Offensives and Mutinies
      4. The German Spring
      5. Offensive
      6. The Fourteen Points and Peace
    8. The Impact of the War
    9. Conclusion

    Chapter 23 Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union

    1. War and Revolution
      1. Russia at War
      2. The February Revolution
      3. The Provisional Government and the Soviet
      4. The Army
      5. The Revolution Spreads Lenin’s Return
      6. The July Days
      7. The Kornilov Affair
    2. The October Revolution
      1. The Bolsheviks Seize Power
      2. The Peace of Brest-Litovsk
    3. Civil War
    4. The Soviet Union
      1. Democratic Centralism
      2. The New Economic Policy

    Chapter 24 The Elusive Search for Stability in the 1920s

    1. The End of the War
      1. Revolution in Germany and Hungary
      2. The Treaty of Versailles
      3. Settlements in Eastern Europe
    2. National and Ethnic Challenges
      1. The National Question and the Successor States
      2. Colonial and National Questions
    3. Economic and Social Instability
      1. Social Turmoil
      2. The Left and the Origins of the Welfare State
    4. Political Instability
      1. Germany’s Fragile Weimar Republic
      2. The Established Democracies: Britain and France
    5. Artists and Intellectuals in the Waste Land

    Chapter 25 The Europe of Economic Depression and Dictatorship

    1. Economies in Crisis
      1. The Great Depression
      2. Gradual Europe an Economic Revival
    2. The Dynamics of Fascism
      1. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy
      2. Hitler and the Rise of the Nazis in Germany
      3. Right-Wing Authoritarian Movements in Eastern Europe
      4. Fascism in Austria
      5. The Popular
      6. Front in France against the Far Right
      7. Fascism in the
      8. Low Countries and Britain
    3. The Third Reich
      1. The Collapse of the Weimar Republic
      2. The Nazi State
      3. Hitler’s New Reich and the Jews
      4. Hitler’s Foreign Policy
      5. The Führer and the Duce
      6. Remilitarization and Rearmament
    4. The Soviet Union under Stalin
      1. Five-Year Plans
      2. Soviet Culture
      3. “Darkness at Noon”: Stalin’s Purges
    5. The Spanish Civil War
      1. Social and Political Instability
      2. The Struggle between Loyalists and Nationalists
    6. Conclusion

    Chapter 26 World War II

    1. The Coming of World War II
      1. The Axis
      2. German Aggression and British and French Appeasement
      3. The Unholy Alliance
    2. The War in Europe Begins
      1. The German Invasion of Poland
      2. The “Phony War”
      3. The War in the Frozen North
      4. The Fall of France
      5. The Battle of Britain
    3. A Global War
      1. Total War
      2. Hitler’s Allies
      3. The German Invasion of Russia
      4. Japan’s Attack on the United States
    4. Hitler’s Europe
      1. The Nazi “New European Order”
      2. The “Final Solution”
      3. Collaboration
      4. Resistance
      5. Against Hitler in Germany
    5. The Tide Turns
      1. Germany on the Defensive
      2. The War in North Africa
      3. Hitler’s Russian Disaster
      4. The Allied Invasion of Italy
      5. The Big Three
      6. The D-Day Invasion of France
    6. Allied Victory
      1. Victory in Europe
      2. The Defeat of Japan
    7. Conclusion


    Chapter 27 Rebuilding Divided Europe

    1. In the Wake of Devastation
      1. The Potsdam Conference
      2. The United Nations and Cold War Alliances
      3. Confronting Turmoil and Collaborators
    2. Economic Recovery and Prosperity, the Welfare State, and European Economic Cooperation
      1. Economic Cooperation
      2. The Post-War Baby Boom
      3. The Green Revolution
      4. Welfare States
    3. Politics in the West in the Post-War Era
    4. Political Realignments
      1. Divided Germany
      2. Eastern Europe under the Soviet Shadow
      3. The Soviet Union and Its Satellites in the Post-War Era
    5. Changing Contours of Life
      1. Intellectual Currents in the Post-War Era
      2. Advances for Women
      3. Catholicism in Modern Europe
      4. An Urban World
      5. Living Better
      6. Oil and the Global Economy
    6. Conclusion

    Chapter 28 The Cold War and the End of European Empires

    1. Cold War
      1. The Korean War (1950–1953)
      2. Stirrings in Eastern Europe
      3. Soviet–U.S. Tensions
      4. Sino-Soviet Rivalry
      5. The Brezhnev Era
      6. Nuclear Weapons and Superpower Tensions
    2. Decolonization
      1. Decolonization in South and Southeast Asia
      2. Britain and the Middle East
      3. The Suez Canal Crisis
      4. French Decolonization
      5. Decolonization in Sub-Saharan Africa
    3. Conclusion

    Chapter 29 Transitions to Democracy and the Collapse of Communism

    1. Politics in a Changing Western World
      1. Student Protests Challenge Gaullist France
      2. Shifts in Western Europe an Politics after 1968
      3. The Transition to Democracy in Southern Europe
    2. Religious and Ethnic Conflicts
    3. The Fall of Communism
      1. Resistance to Soviet Domination
      2. The Gorbachev Era
      3. Transition to Parliamentary Government in Poland and Hungary
      4. The Collapse of the Berlin Wall and of East German Communism
      5. The “Velvet Revolution” in Czechoslovakia
      6. Revolutions in Bulgaria, Romania, and Albania
      7. The Collapse of the Soviet Union
      8. The Disintegration of Yugoslavia
      9. Challenges in the Post-Communist World
    4. Conclusion

    Chapter 30 Global Challenges: “Fortress Europe,” European Cooperation, and the Uncertainties of a New Age

    1. Immigration to Europe
    2. European Community, European Union
    3. Opposition to Globalization
    4. The Threat of Terrorism
      1. A United States Empire?
      2. European Responses to U.S. Policy
    5. Conclusion

    Further Readings