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Book Details

  • Paperback
  • Bookstore's Wholesale Price: $88.00
  • October 2013
  • ISBN: 978-0-393-93078-8
  • 624 pages
  • Territory Rights: Worldwide

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    1. Philosophy

    The Art of Reasoning

    An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

    Fourth Edition


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    David Kelley (Author)


    A clear and accessible introduction to the elements of logic, with a wealth of problems and exercises.

    Students learn logic by practicing it—by working through problems, analyzing existing arguments, and constructing their own arguments in plain language and symbolic notation. The Art of Reasoning not only introduces the principles of critical thinking and logic in a clear, accessible, and logical manner—thus practicing what it preaches—but it also provides ample opportunity for students to hone their skills and master course content.


    An abundant number and variety of problems

    The Art of Reasoning now offers 2,400 exercises. These exercises have been thoroughly vetted for accuracy and relevance. In the text, Mid-chapter Exercises appear after each major section and immediately reinforce new material that has been covered in that section. End-of-chapter Additional Exercises challenge students to extend and combine skills previously tested in mid-chapter exercises and in earlier chapters, helping them connect principles for a coherent view of the discipline.  

    A powerful, free online homework system

    Built in collaboration with and hosted by a leading research university’s learning platform, the online homework system for The Art of Reasoning is free with every new copy of the text and offers unique features that take advantage of over a decade of research into computer-assisted logic instruction. The online homework saves instructors time, offering a pre-selected set of assignments, drawing on a pool of over 1,200 problems, covering all the unanswered problems in the book. The program assigns and corrects homework from the text, covers the analysis and formulation of propositions and arguments, presents truth tables, and offers a powerful and unique proof construction environment.  

    Clear and relevant

    David Kelley’s clear, elegant, logical exposition sets The Art of Reasoning apart. Kelley explains complex concepts in a lucid and accessible manner that makes the material much easier for students to comprehend. The examples and exercises in the text come from a diverse array of sources: from the news, from real arguments posed in classic and contemporary books and magazines, and from across the higher education curriculum. These examples show students how logic can be put to use in their everyday lives, and in whatever their field of study might be. 

    Helpful learning aids

    Recognizing that students need plenty of opportunities to review and rehearse logic’s numerous rules and concepts, Kelley builds into each chapter several learning aids that encourage these activities. Chapter Outlines give students a roadmap of what they will be learning in each chapter. Summary units provide reviews of key concepts, rules, and definitions. Strategy units showcase heuristics, tips, and procedures to help students tackle even the toughest problems. A Chapter Summary and Key Terms appear at the end of each chapter. 


      Part One: Language and Reasoning

      Chapter 1: Classification
      1.1 Concepts and Referents
      1.2 Rules of Classification
          1.2A Consistent Principle
          1.2B Essential Attributes
      1.3 Levels of Organization
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 2: Definitions
      2.1 The Functions of a Definition
      2.2 Rules for Definitions
      2.3 Constructing Definitions
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 3: Propositions
      3.1 Propositions and Word Meaning
          3.1A Connotations
          3.1B Metaphors
      3.2 Propositions and Grammar
          3.2A Propositions and Sentence Structure
          3.2B Connectives
          3.2C Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses
          3.2D Noun Clauses
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 4: Argument Analysis
      4.1 Elements of Reasoning
          4.1A Premise, Conclusion, and Argument
          4.1B Recognizing Arguments
      4.2 Diagramming Arguments
      4.3 Evaluating Arguments
      4.4 Induction and Deduction
      4.5 Implicit Premises
      4.6 Distilling Arguments
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 5: Fallacies

      5.1 Subjectivist Fallacies
          5.1A Subjectivism
          5.1B Appeal to Majority
          5.1C Appeal to Emotion
          5.1D Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum)
      5.2 Fallacies Involving Credibility
          5.2A Appeal to Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)
          5.2B Ad Hominem
      5.3 Fallacies of Context
          5.3A False Alternative
          5.3B Post Hoc
          5.3C Hasty Generalization
          5.3D Accident
          5.3E Slippery Slope
          5.3F Composition and Division
      5.4 Fallacies of Logical Structure
          5.4A Begging the Question (Circular Argument)
          5.4B Equivocation
          5.4C Appeal to Ignorance (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
          5.4D Diversion
      Additional Exercises


      Part Two: Deductive Logic

      Chapter 6: Categorical Propositions
      6.1 Standard Form
          6.1A Components of Categorical Propositions
          6.1B Translating into Standard Form
      6.2 The Square of Opposition
          6.2A Contraries
          6.2B Contradictories
          6.2C Subalternates
          6.2D Subcontraries
      6.3 Existential Import
      6.4 Venn Diagrams
      6.5 Immediate Inference
          6.5A Conversion
          6.5B Obversion
          6.5C Contraposition
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 7: Categorical Syllogisms
      7.1 The Structure of a Syllogism
      7.2 Validity
      7.3 Enthymemes
      7.4 Rules of Validity
          7.4A Distribution
          7.4B The Rules
          7.4C Enthymemes and Rules
      7.5 Venn Diagrams
          7.5A Diagramming Syllogisms
          7.5B Enthymemes and Venn Diagrams
          7.5C Venn Diagrams and Existential Import
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 8: Reasoning with Syllogisms
      8.1 Disjunctive Syllogisms
      8.2 Hypothetical Syllogisms
          8.2A Hypothetical Propositions
          8.2B Forms of Hypothetical Syllogism
      8.3 Distilling Deductive Arguments
          8.3A Identifying the Form of a Syllogism
          8.3B Nonstandard Quantifiers
      8.4 Extended Arguments
          8.4A Categorical Syllogisms in Extended Arguments
          8.4B Hypothetical Syllogisms in Extended Arguments
          8.4C Extended Arguments with Elements of Different Types
          8.4D Compound Components
          8.4E Distilling an Extended Argument
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 9: Propositional Logic—Propositions
      9.1 Connectives
          9.1A Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction
          9.1B Conditional and Biconditional
          9.1C Truth Functions
      9.2 Statement Forms
      9.3 Computing Truth Values
      9.4 Formal Properties and Relationships
          9.4A Tautologies, Self-Contradictions, and Contingencies
          9.4B Equivalence, Contradiction, and Consistency
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 10: Propositional Logic—Arguments

      10.1 Truth Table Test of Validity
      10.2 Truth Table Test: Short Form
      10.3 Proof
          10.3A Rules of Inference
          10.3B Rules of Inference (Continued)
          10.3C Constructing a Proof
      10.4 Equivalence
          10.4A Rules of Equivalence
          10.4B Rules of Equivalence (Continued)
      10.5 Conditional Proof and Reductio ad Absurdum
          10.5A Conditional Proof
          10.5B Reductio ad Absurdum
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 11: Predicate Logic
      11.1 Singular and Quantified Statements
          11.1A Singular Statements
          11.1B Quantified Statements
      11.2 Categorical Statements
      11.3 Quantifier Scope and Statement Forms
          11.3A Compound Statements Within the Scope of a Quantifier
          11.3B Combining Quantified Statements
      11.4 Proof
          11.4A Using Propositional Rules
          11.4B Equivalence Rule: Quantifier Negation
          11.4C Inference Rules
          11.4D Strategies for Proof
          11.4E Conditional Proof and Reductio ad Absurdum
      11.5 Relations and Multiple Quantification
          11.5A Relations
          11.5B Overlapping Quantifiers
          11.5C Proof with Relational Statements
      Additional Exercises

      Part Three: Inductive Logic

      Chapter 12: Inductive Generalizations
      12.1 Generalizing
          12.1A Three Rules for Generalizing
      12.2 Causality
      12.3 Agreement and Difference
      12.4 Concomitant Variations and Residues
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 13: Argument by Analogy
      13.1 Analogy and Similarity
      13.2 Analysis and Evaluation
          13.2A Finding the Connecting Term
          13.2B Evaluation
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 14: Statistical Reasoning

      14.1 Logic and Statistics
      14.2 Using Statistics in Argument
          14.2A Totals and Ratios
          14.2B Frequency and Distribution
          14.2C Average and Median
      14.3 Statistical Generalization
      14.4 Statistical Evidence of Causality
          14.4A Correlation and Causality
          14.4B Evaluating Correlations
          14.4C Experiments Versus Observational Studies
          14.4D External Validity
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 15: Explanation
      15.1 Explanation and Argument
          15.1A Diagramming Explanations
          15.1B Evaluating Explanations
      15.2 Adequacy of Hypotheses
          15.2A Strength
          15.2B Completeness
          15.2C Informativeness
          15.2D Combining the Standards
      15.3 The Truth of Hypotheses
          15.3A Testing Hypotheses
          15.3B Plausibility
      Additional Exercises

      Chapter 16: Probability
      16.1 Probability Measures
      16.2 The Probability Calculus
          16.2A Conjunction
          16.2B Disjunction
          16.2C Negation
          16.2D Extending the Rules
      Additional Exercises


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