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  • Paperback
  • January 2010
  • ISBN 978-0-393-18020-6
  • 5 × 8 in
  • Territory Rights: USA and Dependencies, Philippines and Canada.


Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology

Paperback

Allan Ludman (Author, Queens College, City University of New York), Stephen Marshak (Author, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)

 

The first new lab manual for introductory geology in a generation.

A collaboration between best-selling author Stephen Marshak (Earth: Portrait of a Planet and Essentials of Geology) and master teacher Allan Ludman, Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology’s inquiry-based approach teaches students to ask and answer questions about the physical world in which we live.

The perfect balance between active learning, summary and review.

Inquiry: Marshak’s authoritative and engaging writing coupled with Ludman’s lab-master insight creates a step-by-step learning approach that asks students to think and engage in the lab exercises as geologists.

Active Learning: Hands-on exercises are interspersed throughout each chapter, encouraging students to stop and think—asking them to process the new material and actively apply their new knowledge to an original problem set before moving on to more complicated material.

Visuals and Narrative: Dynamic, pedagogically innovative art is paired with authoritative and proven narrative.

Review: Just the right amount of summary and review material gives students the confidence and information needed to work through the exercises.

New Microcomputer Digital Elevation Maps (MicroDEMs) allow students to explore geologic maps with state-of-the-art technology.

With displays and merges of satellite imagery, MicroDEMs help students develop a richer understanding of geologic mapping by giving them the control to visualize and explore topographic maps as geologists!

A great value for students.

Already priced 20 percent less than the market-leading geology lab manual, Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology is also available at a 50 percent discount when packaged with either Earth: Portrait of a Planet, Third Edition, or Essentials of Geology, Third Edition.

    Part 1: Investigating the Earth

    Chapter 1 Setting the Stage for Learning about the Earth

    1. 1.1 The Challenge of Studying a Planet
    2. 1.2 Studying Matter and Energy
      1. 1.2.1 The Nature of Matter
      2. 1.2.2 Distribution of Matter in the Earth System
      3. 1.2.3 Energy in the Earth System
    3. 1.3 Units for Scientific Measurement
      1. 1.3.1 Units of Length and Distance
      2. 1.3.2 Other Dimensions, Other Units
    4. 1.4 Expressing Earth’s “Vital Statistics” with Appropriate Units
    5. 1.5 The Challenge of Scale when Studying a Planet
      1. 1.5.1 Scientific Notation and Orders of Magnitude
      2. 1.5.2 Coping with Scale Problems: Maps, Diagrams, and Models
    6. 1.6 The Challenge of Working with Geologic Time
      1. 1.6.1 Uniformitarianism: The Key to Understanding the Geologic Past
      2. 1.6.2 Rates of Geologic Processes
      3. 1.6.3 “Life Spans” of Mountains and Oceans
    7. 1.7 Applying the Basics to Interpreting the Earth
      1. 1.7.1 Pressure in the Earth
    8. Appendix 1.1 Metric‐English Conversion Chart

    Chapter 2 The Way the Earth Works: Examining Plate Tectonics

    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 The Plate Tectonics Theory
    3. 2.3 Early Evidence for Plate Tectonics
      1. 2.3.1 Evidence from the Fit of the Continents
      2. 2.3.2 Evidence from Reconstructing Paleoclimate Belts
    4. 2.4 Modern Evidence for Plate Tectonics
      1. 2.4.1 Evidence for Sea‐Floor Spreading: Oceanic Magnetic Anomalies
    5. 2.5 Plate Tectonic Processes Revealed by Earth Features
      1. 2.5.1 Sea‐Floor Spreading
      2. 2.5.2 Hot‐Spot Volcanic Island Chains: Evidence for the Direction and Rate of Plate Motion
      3. 2.5.3 Continental Rifting
      4. 2.5.4 Transform Faults
    6. 2.6 Active versus Passive Continental Margins

    Part 2: Earth Materials

    Chapter 3 Minerals

    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Classifying Earth Materials
    3. 3.3 What Is a Mineral and What Isn’t?
    4. 3.4 Physical Properties of Minerals
      1. 3.4.1 Diagnostic versus Ambiguous Properties
      2. 3.4.2 Luster
      3. 3.4.3 Color
      4. 3.4.4 Streak
      5. 3.4.5 Hardness
      6. 3.4.6 Crystal Habit
      7. 3.4.7 Breakage
      8. 3.4.8 Specific Gravity
      9. 3.4.9 Magnetism
      10. 3.4.10 Feel
      11. 3.4.11 Taste
      12. 3.4.12 Odor
      13. 3.4.13 Reaction with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
      14. 3.4.14 Tenacity
    5. 3.5 Identifying Mineral Specimens
    6. 3.6 Mineral Classification
    7. 3.7 Minerals in Everyday Life
    8. Appendix 3.1 Mineral Identification Flow Charts
    9. Appendix 3.2 Determinative Tables for Systematic Mineral Identification
    10. Appendix 3.3 Common Minerals and Their Properties

    Chapter 4 Minerals, Rocks, and the Rock Cycle

    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Three Classes of Rocks
      1. 4.2.1 The Rock Cycle
    3. 4.3 A Rock Is More than the Sum of Its Minerals
      1. 4.3.1 Describing Texture
      2. 4.3.2 Relationships among Grains
      3. 4.3.3 Grain Orientation and Alignment
    4. 4.4 The Processes That Produce Textures
    5. 4.5 Clues about a Rock’s Origin from the Minerals It Contains
    6. 4.6 Identifying Minerals in Rocks
    7. 4.7 Interpreting the Origin of Rocks

    Chapter 5 Using Igneous Rocks to Interpret Earth History

    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Interpreting the Cooling Histories of Igneous Rocks
      1. 5.2.1 Grain Size in Crystalline Igneous Rock
      2. 5.2.2 Glassy Igneous Textures
      3. 5.2.3 Porous (Vesicular) Textures
      4. 5.2.4 Fragmental Textures
      5. 5.2.5 Grain Shape
    3. 5.3 Igneous Rock Classification and Identification
      1. 5.3.1 Igneous Rock Classification: The Four Major Compositional Groups
      2. 5.3.2 Identifying Igneous Rocks
    4. 5.4 Origin and Evolution of Magmas
      1. 5.4.1 Where and Why Do Rocks and Minerals Melt?
      2. 5.4.2 How Do Rocks and Minerals Melt?
      3. 5.4.3 Origin of the Igneous Rock Groups: Factors Controlling Magma Composition
    5. 5.5 Igneous Rocks and Plate Tectonics
      1. 5.5.1 Tectonic Settings of Ultramafic Rocks (Peridotites)
      2. 5.5.2 Tectonic Settings of Mafic Igneous Rocks (Basalt and Gabbro)
      3. 5.5.3 Tectonic Settings of Intermediate Rocks (Andesite and Diorite)
      4. 5.5.4 Tectonic Settings of Felsic Rocks (Granite and Rhyolite)
      5. 5.5.5 Visiting Localities Where Igneous Rocks Are Forming or Have Formed in the Past

    Chapter 6 Using Sedimentary Rocks to Interpret Earth History

    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Sediment Formation and Evolution
      1. 6.2.1 The Origin of Sediment
      2. 6.2.2 Weathering and Its Influence on Sediment Composition
      3. 6.2.3 Mineralogical Maturity
    3. 6.3 The Basic Classes of Sedimentary Rocks
      1. 6.3.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rock
      2. 6.3.2 Chemical Sedimentary Rock
      3. 6.3.3 Biogenic Sedimentary Rock
      4. 6.3.4 Compositional Classes of Sedimentary Rocks
      5. 6.3.5 Textural Classes of Sedimentary Rocks
    4. 6.4 Identifying Sedimentary Rocks
    5. 6.5 Interpreting Clastic Sedimentary Textures
      1. 6.5.1 Grain Size and Sorting
      2. 6.5.2 Grain Shape
      3. 6.5.3 Cements
    6. 6.6 Sedimentary Structures: Clues to Ancient Environments
      1. 6.6.1 Beds and Stratification
      2. 6.6.2 Sedimentary Structures
      3. 6.6.3 Fossils: The Remnants of Past Life
    7. 6.7 Applying Your Knowledge to Stratigraphy

    Chapter 7 Interpreting Metamorphic Rocks

    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Agents of Metamorphism
      1. 7.2.1 The Effect of Heat
      2. 7.2.2 The Effect of Pressure
      3. 7.2.3 The Effect of Temperature and Pressure Combined
      4. 7.2.4 The Effect of Fluids
      5. 7.2.5 Environments of Metamorphism
    3. 7.3 What Can We Learn from a Metamorphic Rock?
      1. 7.3.1 Identifying the Protolith: Compositional Classes
      2. 7.3.2 Interpreting Metamorphic Fabric
      3. 7.3.3 Granoblastic Texture
      4. 7.3.4 Textures Produced by Dynamic Metamorphism
      5. 7.3.5 Determining Metamorphic Grade
    4. 7.4 Metamorphic Rock Classification and Identification
    5. 7.5 Applying Your Knowledge of Metamorphic Rocks to Geologic Problems

    Part 3: Earth’s Dynamic Landscapes

    Chapter 8 Studying Earth’s Landforms

    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Images Used to Study Earth’s Surface
      1. 8.2.1 Map Projections
    3. 8.3 Map Elements
      1. 8.3.1 Map Element 1: Location
      2. 8.3.2 Map Element 2: Direction
      3. 8.3.3 Map Element 3: Distance and Scale
    4. 8.4 Vertical Exaggeration—A Matter of Perspective

    Chapter 9 Working with Topographic Maps

    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Contour Lines
      1. 9.2.1 Contour Lines on Topographic Maps
    3. 9.3 Reading Topographic Maps
      1. 9.3.1 Contour Lines and Elevation
      2. 9.3.2 Contour Lines and Streams: Which Way Is the Water Flowing?
    4. 9.4 Topographic Profiles
      1. 9.4.1 Constructing a Topographic Profile
      2. 9.4.2 Vertical Exaggeration
    5. 9.5 Additional Information Shown on Topographic Maps
    6. 9.6 Using Topographic Maps to Predict and Prevent Natural Disasters
    7. Appendix 9.1 Common Topographic Map Symbols

    Chapter 10 Landscapes Formed by Streams

    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 How Do Streams Work?
      1. 10.2.1 Stream Erosion: Downward or Sideways
    3. 10.3 Stream Valley Types and Features
      1. 10.3.1 Features of Floodplains
    4. 10.4 Changes in Streams over Time
    5. 10.5 Stream Networks
      1. 10.5.1 Drainage Basins
      2. 10.5.2 Drainage Patterns
    6. 10.6 Changes in Stream‐Carved Landscapes with Time
    7. 10.7 When Streams Don’t Seem to Follow the Rules
    8. 10.8 When There’s Too Much Water: Floods

    Chapter 11 Glacial Landscapes

    1. 11.1 Introduction
      1. 11.1.1 Types of Glaciers
      2. 11.1.2 How Glaciers Create Landforms
    2. 11.2 Landscapes Produced by Continental Glaciation
      1. 11.2.1 Erosional Landscapes
      2. 11.2.2 Depositional Landscapes
    3. 11.3 Landscapes Produced by Mountain Glaciation

    Chapter 12 Groundwater as a Landscape Former and Resource

    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Aquifers and Aquitards
    3. 12.3 Landscapes Produced by Groundwater
    4. 12.4 The Water Table
    5. 12.5 Groundwater Resources and Environmental Problems

    Chapter 13 Processes and Landforms in Arid Environments

    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Processes in Arid Regions
    3. 13.3 Progressive Evolution of Arid Landscapes
    4. 13.4 Wind and Sand Dunes

    Chapter 14 Shoreline Landscapes

    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Factors Controlling Shoreline Erosion and Deposition
    3. 14.3 Evolution of Coastal Landforms
      1. 14.3.1 Waves
      2. 14.3.2 Coastal Materials
      3. 14.3.3 Climate Change
      4. 14.3.4 Tectonic Activity
    4. 14.4 Emergent and Submergent Shorelines
    5. 14.5 Erosional and Depositional Shoreline Features
      1. 14.5.1 Erosional Features
      2. 14.5.2 Depositional Features
    6. 14.6 When Shorelines Become Dangerous
      1. 14.6.1 Coastal Storms
      2. 14.6.2 Hurricane Hazards

    Part 4: The Third and Fourth Dimensions

    Chapter 15 Interpreting Geologic Structures on Block Diagrams, Geologic Maps, and Cross Sections

    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Beginning with the Basics: Contacts and Attitude
      1. 15.2.1 Geologic Contacts and Geologic Formations
      2. 15.2.2 Describing the Orientation of Layers: Strike and Dip
    3. 15.3 Working with Block Diagrams
      1. 15.3.1 Block Diagrams of Flat‐Lying and Dipping Strata
      2. 15.3.2 Block Diagrams of Simple Folds
      3. 15.3.3 Block Diagrams of Faults
      4. 15.3.4 Block Diagrams of Igneous Intrusions
      5. 15.3.5 Block Diagrams of Unconformities
    4. 15.4 Geologic Maps
      1. 15.4.1 Introducing Geologic Maps and Map Symbols
      2. 15.4.2 Constructing Cross Sections
      3. 15.4.3 Basic Geologic Map Patterns
      4. 15.4.4 Geologic Maps with Contour Lines
    5. 15.5 Structures Revealed in Landscapes
    6. 15.6 Reading Real Geologic Maps
      1. 15.6.1 Geologic Maps of Local Areas
      2. 15.6.2 Geologic Maps of State‐ to Continent‐Sized Areas
    7. 15.7 Thinking Like a Geologist

    Chapter 16 Earthquakes and Seismology

    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Causes of Earthquakes: Seismic Waves
    3. 16.3 Locating Earthquakes and Measuring Magnitude
    4. 16.4 Predicting Earthquake Hazards: Liquefaction

    Chapter 17 Interpreting Geologic History: What Happened and When Did It Happen?

    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Physical Criteria for Determining Relative Age
      1. 17.2.1 Principles of Original Horizontality and Superposition
      2. 17.2.2 Principle of Cross‐Cutting Relationships
      3. 17.2.3 Principle of Inclusions
      4. 17.2.4 Sedimentary Structures
    3. 17.3 Unconformities: Evidence for a Gap in the Geologic Record
    4. 17.4 Biological Methods for Relative Age Dating and Correlation
      1. 17.4.1 Principle of Faunal and Floral Succession
      2. 17.4.2 The Geologic Time Chart
      3. 17.4.3 Fossil Age Ranges
    5. 17.5 Correlation: Fitting Pieces of the Puzzle Together
    6. 17.6 Numerical Age Dating