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  • Paperback
  • Bookstore's Wholesale Price: $18
  • December 2008
  • ISBN: 978-0-393-92822-8
  • 5 × 8 in / 700 pages
  • Territory Rights: Worldwide


Elizabeth I and Her Age

Paperback

Winner of the 2010 Translation or Teaching Edition Prize by the Society for the Study of Early Modern Women

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Susan M. Felch (Editor, Calvin College), Donald V. Stump (Editor, St. Louis University)

 

Four centuries after her death, Elizabeth I remains a powerful and fascinating figure.

Succeeding to the English throne in 1558, she was the third woman monarch in the nation’s history. The role of English monarch—which involved being commander in chief, head of the English Church, and ruler of the royal court, with all its intrigues—was intended for a man ruling among men, and women rulers before Elizabeth had bestowed their power on husbands. Resisting this pattern, Elizabeth not only endured a monarch but flourished as a leader and cultural figurehead, inspiring the Golden Age of English literature, the Age of Discovery, and the Age of Reformation in English religious life.

This Norton Critical Edition provides a diverse and extensive selection of authors (including the Queen herself) and carefully annotated works. The works are organized chronologically to cover the forty-four years of Elizabeth’s reign, allowing readers to explore not only the literary and aesthetic qualities that make these writings noteworthy but also the range of political, social, cultural, and historical concerns that prompted their creation.

The editors have assembled a rich, thematically organized collection of commentary and criticism for Elizabeth I and Her Age. From Raphael Holinshed’s, Sir Francis Bacon’s, and Agnes Strickland’s early accounts of the Queen to Natalie Mears on Elizabeth I’s strategies for rule and Thomas Betteridge on the Queen in film, the twenty-five diverse views of Elizabeth I herein are sure to promote lively classroom discussion.

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    Preface

    Editorial Principles

    Texts

    Part One: The Princess Elizabeth (1533-1558)

    Historical Background

    Parentage and Infancy

    1. JOHN FOXE
      1. From Acts and Monuments (1583)
      2. Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
      3. The Birth and Baptism of Elizabeth
      4. The Death of the Lady Katherine and of Queen Anne
    2. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE and JOHN FLETCHER
      1. From Henry VIII (1613)
      2. Cranmer Prophesies the Glories of Elizabeth's Reign

    Princess and Prodigy

    1. PRINCESS ELIZABETH
      1. Letter of Dedication to Katherine Parr (1544)
      2. Verse Translation of the 13th Psalm of David (1548)
    2. CHURCH OF ENGLAND
      1. Psalm 13 from the Great Bible (1540)
    3. JOHN BALE
      1. From the Preface to A Godly Meditation of the Christian Soul (1548)

    Threats and Imprisonment

    1. PRINCESS ELIZABETH
      1. Letter to Edward Seymour (1549)
      2. Letter to Mary Tudor (1554)
      3. "Oh Fortune, thy wresting wavering state" (1554-55?)
      4. "'Twas Christ the Word" (1554-55?)
      5. "No Crooked Leg" (ca. 1558)
      6. Prayers (1554)
    2. JOHN FOXE
      1. From Acts and Monuments
      2. "The Life, State, and Story of Thomas Cranmer" (1583)
      3. "The Miraculous Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth" (1563)

    Retrospectives on Mary and Elizabeth

    1. THOMAS HEYWOOD
      1. From If You Know Not Me, You Know No Body; Or, The troubles of Queen Elizabeth, Part One (1605)
    2. EDMUND SPENSER
      1. From The Faerie Queene (1590)
      2. Arthur Defeats Orgoglio, Duessa, and the Beast

    Part Two: Coronation and the Problems of Legitimacy, Religion, and Succession (1559-1566)

    Historical Background

    The New Queen's First Words

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Words Spoken by Her Majesty to Master Cecil" (1558)
      2. "Words Spoken by the Queen to the Lords" (1558)

    Questions Concerning the Legitimacy of Female Rule

    1. JOHN KNOX
      1. From The First Blast of the Trumpet (1558)
    2. JOHN AYLMER
      1. From An Harbor for Subjects (1559)

    The Coronation Pageants

    1. RICHARD MULCASTER
      1. From The Passage of our Most Dread Sovereign Lady (1559)

    Prayers and Exhortations

    1. CHURCH OF ENGLAND
      1. "A Prayer for the Queen's Majesty (1559)
      2. From "A Form of Prayer to be used in Private Houses Every Morning and Evening" (1562)
      3. From "An Exhortation Concerning Good Order and Obedience" (1559)
    2. WILLIAM WHITTINGHAM
      1. From the Dedicatory Epistle to the Geneva Bible (1560)
    3. ANNE LOCK
      1. From Sermons of John Calvin upon the Song that Hezekiah Made (1560)
      2. Dedicatory Epistle
      3. "A Meditation of a Penitent Sinner: Written in Manner of a Paraphrase upon the 51st Psalm of David"
    4. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Prayers from Precationes Privatae (1563)

    Questions at Home and Wars Abroad

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. First Speech before Parliament (1559)
      2. Answer to the Commons' Petition That She Marry (1563)
      3. Proclamation on the Return of Soldiers from Newhaven (1563)

    Elizabeth among Her People

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Latin Oration at Cambridge (1564)
    2. WILLIAM BIRCH
      1. "A Song between the Queen's Majesty and England" (1564)

    Part Three: Mary Stuart, the Northern Rebellion, and Protestant Discontent (1567-1571)

    Historical Background

    The Matter of Mary Stuart

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Letters to Mary Stuart (1567)
    2. JOHN LESLEY
      1. From A Defense of the Honor of the Princess Mary, Queen of Scotland (1569)

    The Rebellion of the Northern Earls

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Proclamation against the Earl of Northumberland (1569)
      2. Letter to Mary Stuart (1570)
    2. POPE PIUS V
      1. The Bull Excommunicating Elizabeth (1570)
    3. THOMAS NORTON
      1. From A Disclosing of the Great Bull (1570)

    Protestant Protests and Prayers

    1. EDWARD DERING
      1. From the "Unruly Heifer" Sermon (1570)
    2. JOHN CONWAY
      1. From Meditations and Prayers (1571)
    3. ANONYMOUS
      1. "A Prayer for Wisdom to Govern the Realm" (1569)

    Mary Stuart and the Ridolfi Plot

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Letter to Thomas Smith, Authorizing the Torture of Two Prisoners (1571)
      2. "The Doubt of Future Foes" (1570?)
    2. EDMUND SPENSER
      1. Britomart's Dream at Isis Church and the Defeat of Radigund
      2. From The Faerie Queene (1596)

    Part Four: Changing Alliances (1572-1577)

    Historical Background

    Prospects of Marriage and Trouble in France

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Letters to Sir Francis Walsingham (1572)
    2. CHURCH OF ENGLAND
      1. A Thanksgiving and Prayer (1572)

    Elizabeth on Summer Progress

    1. ANONYMOUS
      1. "The First Anointed Queen I Am" (1573?)
    2. GEORGE GASCOIGNE
      1. The Princely Pleasures at the Court at Kenilworth (1575)
    3. ROBERT LANEHAM (pseud.)
      1. From A Letter on the Entertainments at Kenilworth (1575)

    Prayers, Advice, and Praise for the Queen

    1. ELIZABETH TYRWHIT
      1. From Morning and Evening Prayers (1574)
    2. EDWARD HAKE
      1. From A Commemoration of the Most Prosperous Reign of Our Sovereign Elizabeth (1575)
    3. JAMES SANFORD
      1. From the Preface to Hours of Recreation, or Afterdinners (1576)
    4. NICHOLAS HILLIARD
      1. From The Art of Limning (1570s?)
    5. EDWARD DE VERE
      1. "What Cunning Can Express" (1576)

    Part Five: The French Marriage Negotiations (1578-1582)

    Historical Background

    The Queen, the French Ambassadors, and the Visit to Norwich

    1. BERNARD GARTER and WILLIAM GOLDINGHAM
      1. The Joyful Receiving of the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty into Her Highness's City of Norwich (1578)

    Elizabeth, Anjou, and the Debate at Court

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Letters to the Duke of Anjou and Catharine de Medici (1579-82)
    2. WLLIAM CECIL, LORD BURGHLEY
      1. "To the Queen's Majesty. Advice about Her Match" (1579)
    3. SIR PHILIP SIDNEY
      1. From "A Discourse . . . to Queen's Majesty, Touching Her Marriage with Monsieur" (1579)

    The Widening Controversy

    1. WILLLIAM ELDERTON
      1. "A New Ballad, Declaring the Dangerous Shooting of the Gun at the Court" (1579)
    2. JOHN STUBBS
      1. From A Gaping Gulf (1579)
    3. SIR PHILIP SIDNEY
      1. From the Old Arcadia (ca. 1579-80)
      2. "As I my Little Flock on Ister Bank"
    4. GEORGE PUTTENHAM
      1. From Partheniads (1579)
      2. "A Very Strange and Rueful Vision"
      3. "Another Vision"
    5. JOHN LYLY
      1. From Euphues and His England (1580)
    6. THOMAS BLENERHASSET
      1. From A Revelation of the True Minerva (1582)
    7. CHRISTOPHER mARLOWE
      1. From Dido, Queen of Carthage (ca. 1581-86)
      2. Anjou's Departure and the Queen's Grief
    8. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. "I Grieve and Dare Not Show My Discontent" (1582)

    Part Six: Favorites, Assassins, and the Death of Mary Stuart (1582-1587)

    Historical Background

    Cupid at Court

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. "When I was Fair and Young" (ca. 1580s)
      2. "Now Leave Me and Let Me Rest" (ca. 1580s)
    2. SIR WALTER RALEGH
      1. "Sweet Are the Thoughts" (ca. 1582-87)
      2. "Calling to Mind Mine Eye Long Went About" (ca. 1582-87)
      3. Verse Exchange with Elizabeth (1587)
      4. "Like Truthless Dreams, So Are My Joys Expired" (1589?)
    3. ROBERT DEVEREAUX, EARL OF ESSEX
      1. "It Was a Time When Silly Bees Could Speak" (ca. 1587-89)

    Accession Day Celebrations

    1. THOMAS BENTLEY
      1. From The Monument of Matrons (1582)
    2. SIR PHILIP SIDNEY
      1. From the New Arcadia
      2. The Joust between Philisides and Lelius (ca. 1584-85)
    3. GEORGE PEELE
      1. From The Arraignment of Paris (1584)

    Attacks and Assassination Attempts

    1. WILLIAM ALLEN
      1. From A True, Sincere and Modest Defense of English Catholics (1584)
    2. THOMAS HEYWOOD
      1. From If You Know Not Me, You Know Nobody, Part II (1585)
      2. The Assassination Attempt of William Parry
    3. CHURCH OF ENGLAND
    4. "Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Preservation of the Queen's Majesty's Life and Safety" (1585)

    The Execution of Mary Stuart

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Speech at the Closing of Parliament (1585)
      2. Replies to Parliament on the matter of Mary Stuart (1586)
    2. MARY STUART
      1. Letter to Henry III (1587)
    3. ROBERT WYNGFIELD
      1. From A Circumstantial Account of the Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots (1587)
    4. ADAM BLACKWOOD
      1. From The History of Mary, Queen of Scots
    5. Richard Fletcher
      1. Sermon after the Execution (1587)
    6. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Letter to James VI on the Execution of His Mother (1587)
    7. JAMES VI
      1. Reply to Elizabeth (1587)

    Part Seven: The Spanish Armada and Its aftermath (1588-1592)

    Historical Background

    Prophecies and Provocations

    1. CYPRIAN VON LEOWITZ
      1. From Of the End of This World (1564)
    2. RICHARD HARVEY
      1. From An Astrological Discourse (1582)
    3. CARDINAL WILLIAM ALLEN
      1. "Declaration of the Sentence and Deposition of Elizabeth" (1588)

    The Destruction of the Armada

    1. JAMES ASKEE
      1. From Elizabetha Triumphans (1588)
      2. The Defeat of the Armada
    2. THOMAS HEYWOOD
      1. From If You Know Not Me, You Know Nobody, Part II (1606)
      2. The Destruction of the Armada

    The Queen at Tilbury

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Verse Exchange with Philip (1588)
      2. Speech to the Troops at Tilbury (1588)
    2. THOMAS DELONEY
      1. "The Queen's Visiting of the Camp at Tilbury" (1588)
    3. JAMES ASKEE
      1. From Elizabetha Triumphans (1588)
      2. The Queen at Tilbury

    Victory Celebrations

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Prayer on the Defeat of the Armada (1588)
      2. Song on the Armada Victory (1588)
      3. Letter to James VI on the Fate of the Armada (1593)
    2. CHURCH OF ENGLAND
      1. From the Armada Liturgy (1588)
    3. DAVID GWYN
      1. "In Commemoration of Sir Francis Drake" (1588)
    4. GEORGE PUTTENHAM
      1. From The Art of English Poesy (1589)
      2. "Her Majesty Resembled to the Crowned Pillar"

    The Wit and Wisdom of the Queen

    1. JANE SEAGER
      1. From The Divine Prophecies of the Ten Sibyls (1589)
    2. ANONYMOUS
      1. "A Peddler's Tale" (1591)

    A Return to Summer Progresses

    1. ANONYMOUS
      1. The Entertainment at Elvetham (1591)
    2. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Latin Oration at Oxford (1592)

    Part Eight: A Changing Court and Aging Queen (1592-1597)

    Historical Background

    Breaking with Old Favorites and Friends

    1. SIR WALTER RALEGH
      1. Poems from Prison (1592)
      2. "If Cynthia Be a Queen"
      3. "My Body in Walls Captived"
      4. From The Twenty-First and Last Book of the Ocean to Cynthia
    2. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Letter to Henry IV (1593)
      2. From her translation of Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy (1593)

    New Faces on Accession Day

    1. SIR WILLIAM SEGAR
      1. From "Jousts at the Tiltyard" (1590)
      2. The Retirement of Sir Henry Lee
    2. GEORGE PEELE
      1. From Anglorum Feriae, England's Holidays (1595)
    3. ROBERT DEVEREUX, EARL OF ESSEX
      1. Device for the Accession Day Tilts (1595)
    4. SIR FRANCIS BACON
      1. Essex's entertainment, Of Love and Self-Love (1595)

    The Woman behind the Mask

    1. SIR JOHN HARINGTON
      1. From Epigrams (1616, 1618)
      2. "To the Queen's Majesty, When She Found Fault with Some Particular Matters in Misacmos"
      3. "To the Ladies of the Queen's Privy Chamber, at the Making of their Perfumed Privy at Richmond"
      4. "Against Lynus, a Writer, That Found Fault with the Metamorphosis"
      5. "Of Soothsaying, to the Queen of England"
      6. "Against Pius Quintus, that Excommunicated Queen Elizabeth"
    2. HENRY LOK
      1. A Square in Verse (1593)
    3. JOHN LYLY
      1. "Prologus" from The Woman in the Moon (1597)
    4. ANDRÉ HURAULT
      1. A private audience with Elizabeth (1597)

    Part Nine: Ireland, Rebellion, and the Passing of the Queen (1598-1603)

    Historical Background

    Tyrone's Rebellion and the Fall of Essex

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. On Sending the Army into Ireland (1599)
      2. Letter to Essex in Ireland (1599)
    2. SIR JOHN HARINGTON
      1. Letters on the Irish Campaign and the Fall of Essex (1599-1601)
      2. From Epigrams (1616, 1618)
      3. "Of the Earl of Essex"
      4. "Of Misacmos's Success in a Suit"
      5. "To the Queen's Majesty, in Praise of Her Reading"
    3. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. Proclamation on the Seizure of Essex (1601)

    The Queen in Her Final Glory

    1. QUEEN ELIZABETH
      1. The Golden Speech (1600)
    2. MARY SIDNEY HERBERT, COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE
      1. From the Sidney Psalms (ca. 1599)
      2. Dedicatory Poem "To Queen Elizabeth"
      3. Psalm 72 (1593-1600)
    3. ANONYMOUS
      1. Psalm 72 from the Geneva Bible (1560)
    4. SIR FRANCIS BACON
      1. Three New Year's Letters (ca. 1600)
    5. ANONYMOUS
      1. "Ode of Cynthia" (1602)
    6. SIR JOHN DAVIES
      1. "Verses of the Queen" (1603)

    Elizabeth's Decline and Death

    1. SIR JOHN HARINGTON
      1. From a Letter to Lady Mary Harington, on the Queen's Decline (1602)
    2. HENRY, EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND
      1. From a letter to James VI on the Queen's decline (1603)
    3. ROBERT CAREY
      1. "The Queen's Last Sickness and Death" (1603)
    4. ELIZABETH SOUTHWELL
      1. "A True Relation of What Succeeded at the Sickness and Death of Queen Elizabeth" (1607)

    England in Mourning

    1. THOMAS DEKKER
      1. From The Wonderful Year (1603)
      2. "The Sickness and Death of Queen Elizabeth"
    2. THOMAS NEWTON
      1. From "The Death of Delia" (1603)
    3. ANONYMOUS
      1. "A Mournful Ditty" (1603)
    4. HENRY PETOWE
      1. From Eliza's Funeral (1603)
      2. From "A Few April Drops Showered on the Hearse of Dead Eliza"

    Eulogies and the End of an Age

    1. LADY DIANA PRIMROSE
      1. A Chain of Pearl (1603)
    2. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
      1. From Sonnets (1609)
      2. Sonnet 107
    3. MICHAEL DRAYTON
      1. From Idea (1605)
      2. Sonnet 51
      3. From The Muses' Elizium (1630)
    4. ANONYMOUS LADY IN WAITING
      1. "Gone is Elizabeth" (1612)

    Part Ten: Lingering Images of the Queen

    A Queen of Many Guises

    1. THOMAS DEKKER
      1. Prologue to Old Fortunatus (1600)
    2. SIR WALTER RALEIGH
      1. "Now We Have Present Made" (ca. 1582-87)

    Elizabeth as Shepherdess

    1. EDMUND SPENSER
      1. From The Shepherd's Calendar (1579)
      2. "April"
    2. MICHAEL DRAYTON
      1. "Rowland's Song in Praise of Beta" (1593?)
    3. MARY SIDNEY
      1. "A Dialogue Between Two Shepherds" (c. 1599)

    Elizabeth as Petrarchan Mistress

    1. GEORGE PUTTENHAM
      1. From Partheniads (1579)
      2. "A Riddle of the Princess Paragon"
    2. HENRY CONSTABLE
      1. "To the Queen" (1594)
    3. JOHN LYLY
      1. "A Ditty" from an Entertainment at Cowdray (1591)

    Elizabeth as Goddess of the Moon

    1. SIR WALTER RALEGH
      1. "Praised be Diana's Fair and Harmless Light" (ca. 1580s?)
    2. EDMUND SPENSER
      1. From The Faerie Queene, Book II (1590)
      2. Braggadoccio and Trompart encounter Belphoebe
    3. GEORGE CHAPMAN
      1. From "Hymnus in Cynthiam" (1594?)
    4. RICHARD BARNFIELD
      1. Cynthia (1595)
    5. ANONYMOUS
      1. "To Cynthia" (1600)
    6. BEN JONSON
      1. "Hymn to Cynthia" (1600)

    Elizabeth as Fairy Queen

    1. SIR WALTER RALEGH (1590)
      1. "A Vision upon This Conceit of the Fairy Queen"
    2. EDMUND SPENSER
      1. From The Faerie Queene, Book I (1590)
      2. Arthur's vision of the Fairy Queen
      3. The Red Cross Knight's vision of Gloriana's city of Cleopolis
      4. From Amoretti (1595)
      5. Sonnets 74 and 80

    Elizabeth as Goddess of Justice

    1. GEORGE PEELE
      1. From Descensus Astraeae (1591)
    2. EDMUND SPENSER
      1. From The Faerie Queene, Book V (1596)
      2. Astraea instructs Artegall in justice and abandons the earth
    3. SIR JOHN DAVIES
      1. From Hymnes of Astraea (1599)

    Elizabeth as the Ever-Virgin Queen

    1. GEORGE PUTTENHAM
      1. From Partheniads (1579)
      2. "She Has a Serpent's Head and Angel's Face"
    2. SIR PHILIP SIDNEY
      1. From the Old Arcadia (ca. 1579-80)
      2. "Now Was Our Heav'nly Vault"
    3. FULKE GREVILLE, BARON BROOKE
      1. From Caelica (1594)
      2. Sonnet 81
    4. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
      1. From A Midsummer Night's Dream (1595)
      2. Oberon tells Puck of a virgin enthroned in the west
    5. EDMUND SPENSER
      1. From The Faerie Queene (1596)
      2. Prince Arthur and Artegall behold Mercilla

    Commentary and Criticism

    Early Accounts of the Queen

    1. Raphael Holinshed, From The Third volume of Chronicles (London: John Harison, et al. 1586).
    2. Sir John Harington, Reminiscences from a Letter to Markham (1606).
    3. Sir Francis Bacon, From The Felicity of Queen Elizabeth and Her Times (London: George Latham, 1651), 23-31, 36-41.
    4. William Camden, From The History of the Life and Reign of Elizabeth, late Queen of England (London: Benjamin Fisher, 1630), selected pages.
    5. Sir Robert Naunton, From Fragmenta Regalia or Observations on the Late Queen Elizabeth (London: s.n., 1641), 4-9.
    6. Sir John Hayward, From The Beginning of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (London: John Partridge, 1636), 448-54.
    7. George Ballard, Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great Britain (Oxford: W. Jackson, 1752), selected pages.
    8. Agnes Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, volume 3 (Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea, 1866), selected pages.

    Elizabeth's Strategies for Rule

    1. J.E. Neale, "The Affability of their Prince," in Queen Elizabeth I (London: Jonathan Cape, 1934; rpt. Garden City, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1957), 212-19.
    2. David Loades, Chapter 13: "The Great Queen," in Elizabeth I (London and New York: Humbledon and London, 2003), 303-19.
    3. Natalie Mears, Queenship and Political Discourse in the Elizabethan Realms (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), assorted pages.

    The Virgin Monarch

    1. Susan Doran: "Why Did Elizabeth Not Marry?" in Dissing Elizabeth: Negative Representations of Gloriana, edited by Julia Walker (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1998), 30-59.

    The Queen's Religious Position

    1. Patrick Collinson, "Windows in a Woman's Soul: Questions about the Religion of Queen Elizabeth I," in Elizabethan Essays, by Patrick Colinson (London: Hambledon Press, 2003), 87-118.

    The Poems and Speeches of Elizabeth

    1. Ilona Bell, "Elizabeth I: Poet," Explorations in Renaissance Culture 30.1 (Summer 2004): 1-22.
    2. George P. Rice, Jr. "The Speaker and the Speeches", in The Public Speaking of Queen Elizabeth: Selections from Her Official Addresses (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), 43-59

    The Progresses and Entertainments

    1. J.E. Neale, "The Affability of Their Prince," in Queen Elizabeth I (London: Jonathan Cape, 1934; rpt. Garden City, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1957), 212-19.
    2. Mary Hill Cole, Introduction, in The Portable Queen: Elizabeth I and the Politics of Ceremony Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999), 1-5.
    3. Zillah Dovey, Introduction to An Elizabethan Progress: The Queen's Journey into East Anglia, 1578 (Phoenix Mill: Sutton, 1996), 1-6.

    The Queen's Portraits

    1. Sir Roy Strong, from Chapter 1: Introduction to Gloriana (London: Thames and Hudson, 1987), 10-44.

    Elizabeth in Literature

    1. John N. King, "Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the Virgin Queen," Renaissance Quarterly 43.1 (Spring 1990): 30-75.
    2. Jeffrey Knapp, Introduction to The Empire Nowhere: England, America, and Literature from "Utopia" to the "Tempest" (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 1-7, 12-17.
    3. Frances Yates, from Part II, Chapter 1: "Queen Elizabeth I as Astraea," in Astraea: The Imperial Theme in the Sixteenth Century (London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975), 59-74, 76-87.

    Criticizing Elizabeth

    1. Carole Levin, "Wanton and Whore," in The Heart and Stomach of a King: Elizabeth I and the Politics of Sex and Power (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994), 67-90.
    2. Donald Stump, "Abandoning the Old Testament: Shifting Paradigms for Elizabeth, 1578-82," Explorations in Renaissance Culture 30.1 (Summer 2004): 89-110.

    The Queen on Film

    1. Thomas Betteridge, "A Queen for All Seasons," in The Myth of Elizabeth, edited by Susan Doran and Thomas S. Freeman (Houndmills, Basingstoke, and New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2003), 243-59.

    Selected Bibliography

    Glossary