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The Norton Introduction to Literature

 


    PREFACE FOR INSTRUCTORS

    INTRODUCTION
    WHAT IS LITERATURE?
    WHAT ARE THE GENRES OF LITERATURE?
    WHY READ LITERATURE?
    WHY STUDY LITERATURE?

    Fiction

    Fiction: Reading, Responding, Writing
    ANONYMOUS, The Elephant in the Village of the Blind
    READING AND RESPONDING TO FICTION
    LINDA BREWER, 20/20
    SAMPLE WRITING: Annotation and Notes on “20/20”
    MARJANE SATRAPI, The Shabbat (from Persepolis)
    WRITING ABOUT FICTION
    RAYMOND CARVER, Cathedral
    SAMPLE WRITING: WESLEY RUPTON, Notes on Raymond Carver’s “Cathedral”
    SAMPLE WRITING: WESLEY RUPTON, Response Paper on Raymond Carver’s “Cathedral”
    SAMPLE WRITING: BETHANY QUALLS, A Narrator’s Blindness in Raymond Carver’s “Cathedral”

    Understanding the Text
    1 PLOT
    G. B. TRUDEAU, From Doonesbury
    JACOB AND WILHELM GRIMM, The Shroud
    GUY DE MAUPASSANT, The Jewelry
    JAMES BALDWIN, Sonny’s Blues

    2 NARRATION AND POINT OF VIEW
    EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Cask of Amontillado
    ERNEST HEMINGWAY, Hills Like White Elephants
    JAMAICA KINCAID, Girl

    3 CHARACTER
    CHARLOTTE BRONTË, From Jane Eyre
    TONI MORRISON, Recitatif
    HA JIN, In Broad Daylight

    4 SETTING
    ITALO CALVINO, From Invisible Cities
    MARGARET MITCHELL, From Gone with the Wind
    ANTON CHEKHOV, The Lady with the Dog
    KATHERINE ANNE PORTER, Flowering Judas
    AMY TAN, A Pair of Tickets
    SAMPLE WRITING: STEVEN MATVIEW, How Setting Reflects Emotions in Anton Chekhov’s “The Lady with the Dog”

    5 SYMBOL AND FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
    NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Birth-Mark
    EDWIDGE DANTICAT, A Wall of Fire Rising

    6 THEME
    AESOP, The Two Crabs
    STEPHEN CRANE, The Open Boat
    GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings
    LOUISE ERDRICH, Love Medicine

    Reading More Fiction
    TONI CADE BAMBARA, Gorilla, My Love
    AMBROSE BIERCE, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
    KATE CHOPIN, The Story of an Hour
    WILLIAM FAULKNER, A Rose for Emily
    CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, The Yellow Wallpaper
    JAMES JOYCE, Araby
    FRANZ KAFKA, A Hunger Artist
    YASUNARI KAWABATA, The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket
    D. H. LAWRENCE, The Rocking-Horse Winner
    BOBBIE ANN MASON, Shiloh
    HERMAN MELVILLE, Bartleby, The Scrivener
    FLANNERY O’CONNOR, A Good Man Is Hard to Find
    JOHN UPDIKE, A&P
    EUDORA WELTY, Why I Live at the P.O.

    Biographical Sketches: Fiction Writers

    Poetry

    Poetry: Reading, Responding, Writing
    READING POETRY
    READING POEMS: FOUR EXAMPLES
    ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, How Do I Love Thee?
    JAROLD RAMSAY, The Tally Stick
    LINDA PASTAN, love poem
    LIZ ROSENBERG, Married Love
    RESPONDING TO POETRY
    RESPONDING TO POEMS: TWO EXAMPLES
    BEN JONSON, On My First Son
    HOWARD NEMEROV, The Vacuum
    RESPONDING TO POEMS: AN EXERCISE
    RITA DOVE, Fifth Grade Autobiography
    ANNE SEXTON, The Fury of Overshoes
    SEAMUS HEANEY, Mid-Term Break
    RESPONDING TO POETRY: EIGHT CONCRETE STEPS AND AN EXAMPLE
    APHRA BEHN, On Her Loving Two Equally
    WRITING ABOUT POETRY
    SAMPLE WRITING: STEPHEN BORDLAND, Response Paper on W. H. Auden’s “[Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone]”
    SAMPLE WRITING: Multiplying by Dividing in Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”

    ROMANTIC LOVE: An Album
    EZRA POUND, The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter
    W. H. AUDEN, [Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone]
    ANNE BRADSTREET, To My Dear and Loving Husband
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Let me not to the marriage of true minds]
    JOHN DONNE, The Sun Rising
    EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, [Women have loved before as I love now]

    Understanding the Text
    7 THEME AND TONE
    LISTENING TO TONE
    MARGE PIERCY, Barbie Doll
    W. D. SNODGRASS, Leaving the Motel
    THOM GUNN, In Time of Plague
    ETHERIDGE KNIGHT, Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane
    SETTING AS THEME
    WILLIAM BLAKE, London
    COMPARING TWO OR MORE POEMS ON SIMILAR TOPICS
    MAXINE KUMIN, Woodchucks
    ADRIENNE RICH, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

    FAMILY: An Album
    GALWAY KINNELL, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps
    ROBERT HAYDEN, Those Winter Sundays
    JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA, Green Chile
    KELLY CHERRY, Alzheimer’s
    ANDREW HUDGINS, Begotten

    8 SPEAKER: WHOSE VOICE DO WE HEAR?
    THOMAS HARDY, The Ruined Maid
    X. J. KENNEDY, In a Prominent Bar in Secaucus One Day
    MARGARET ATWOOD, Death of a Young Son by Drowning
    ROBERT BROWNING, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister
    DOROTHY PARKER, A Certain Lady
    AUTHOR VERSUS SPEAKER
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways
    ROBERT BURNS, To a Louse
    GWENDOLYN BROOKS, We Real Cool
    WALT WHITMAN, [I celebrate myself, and sing myself ]

    9 SITUATION AND SETTING: WHAT HAPPENS? WHERE? WHEN?
    SITUATIONS: CARING FOR CHILDREN
    RITA DOVE, Daystar
    LINDA PASTAN, To a Daughter Leaving Home
    SETTINGS: HISTORICAL CONTEXTS
    JOHN MILTON, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont
    MATTHEW ARNOLD, Dover Beach
    JOHN BETJEMAN, In Westminster Abbey
    SITUATION AND SETTING: PREPARING A RESPONSE PAPER
    JAMES DICKEY, Cherrylog Road
    TWO CARPE DIEM POEMS
    JOHN DONNE, The Flea
    ANDREW MARVELL, To His Coy Mistress
    POEMS OF VARIED SITUATIONS AND SETTINGS
    EMILY BRONTË, The Night-Wind
    SYLVIA PLATH, Point Shirley
    JOSHUA CLOVER, The Nevada Glassworks
    DEREK WALCOTT, Midsummer
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Full many a glorious morning have I seen]
    JOHN DONNE, The Good-Morrow
    SYLVIA PLATH, Morning Star
    BILLY COLLINS, Morning

    CULTURAL HOMELANDS: An Album
    PHILLIS WHEATLEY, On Being Brought from Africa to America
    MAYA ANGELOU, Africa
    DEREK WALCOTT, A Far Cry from Africa
    AGHA SHAHID ALI, Postcard from Kashmir

    10 LANGUAGE
    PRECISION AND AMBIGUITY, DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION
    SARA CLEGHORN, [The golf links lie so near the mill]
    ANNE FINCH, COUNTESS OF WINCHELSEA, There’s No To-morrow
    CHARLES BERNSTEIN, Of Time and the Line
    WALTER DE LA MARE, Slim Cunning Hands
    THEODORE ROETHKE, My Papa’s Waltz
    WORD ORDER AND WORD PLACEMENT
    SHARON OLDS, Sex without Love
    EMILY DICKINSON, [I dwell in Possibility—]
    WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Red Wheelbarrow
                    This Is Just to Say
    GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Pied Beauty
    E. E. CUMMINGS, [in Just—]
    LI- YOUNG LEE, Persimmons
    PICTURING: THE LANGUAGES OF DESCRIPTION
    OSCAR WILDE, Symphony in Yellow
    RICHARD WILBUR, The Beautiful Changes
    ANDREW MARVELL, On a Drop of Dew
    META PHOR AND PERSONIFICATION
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [That time of year thou mayest in me behold]
    LINDA PASTAN, Marks
    SIMILE AND ANALOGY
    ROBERT BURNS, A Red, Red Rose
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?]
    ANONYMOUS, The Twenty-third Psalm
    JOHN DONNE, [Batter my heart, three-personed God]
                    The Canonization
    DAVID FERRY, At the Hospital
    RANDALL JARRELL, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
    WILFRED OWEN, Dulce et Decorum Est
    SYMBOL
    JAMES DICKEY, The Leap
    EDMUND WALLER, Song
    D. H. LAWRENCE, I Am Like a Rose
    DOROTHY PARKER, One Perfect Rose
    WILLIAM BLAKE, The Sick Rose
    ROBERT FROST, Fireflies in the Garden
    ADRIENNE RICH, Diving into the Wreck
    ROO BORSON, After a Death

    11 THE SOUNDS OF POETRY
    SOUND POEMS: SOME EXAMPLES
    HELEN CHASIN, The Word Plum
    KENNETH FEARING, Dirge
    ALEXANDER POPE, Sound and Sense
    POETIC METER
    SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Metrical Feet
    PRACTICING SCANSION (READING METER)
    ANONYMOUS, [There was a young girl from St. Paul]
    ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, From The Charge of the Light Brigade
    SIR JOHN SUCKLING, Song
    JOHN DRYDEN, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham
    SCANNING METER: A SELECTION OF POEMS
    EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Raven
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore]
    GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Spring and Fall
    EMILY DICKINSON, [A narrow Fellow in the Grass]

    WORDS AND MUSIC: An Album
    THOMAS CAMPION, When to Her Lute Corinna Sings
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Spring
    ROBERT HAYDEN, Homage to the Empress of the Blues
    MICHAEL HARPER, Dear John, Dear Coltrane
    BOB DYLAN, Mr. Tambourine Man

    12 INTERNAL STRUCTURE
    NARRATIVE POEMS
    EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, Mr. Flood’s Party
    DRAMATIC POEMS
    HOWARD NEMEROV, The Goose Fish
    OTHER TYPES OF POETIC STRUCTURE
    PAT MORA, Sonrisas
    SHIFTS OF TONE AND SUBJECT
    SHARON OLDS, The Victims
    ANONYMOUS, Sir Patrick Spens
    WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Dance
    EMILY DICKINSON, [The Wind begun to knead the Grass—]
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Th’expense of spirit in a waste of shame]
    PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ode to the West Wind

    13 EXTERNAL FORM
    RHYME
    STANZAS
    STANZAS AND RHYME SCHEMES: SOME EXAMPLES
    DYLAN THOMAS, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
    MARIANNE MOORE, Poetry
    ELIZABETH BISHOP, Sestina
    ARCHIBALD MACLEISH, Ars Poetica
    DUDLEY RANDALL, Ballad of Birmingham
    THE SONNET
    HENRY CONSTABLE, [My lady’s presence makes the roses red]
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Nuns Fret Not
    DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI, A Sonnet Is a Moment’s Monument
    JOHN KEATS, On the Sonnet
                    On the Grasshopper and the Cricket
                    On Seeing the Elgin Marbles
    GWENDOLYN BROOKS, First Fight. Then Fiddle.
    ROBERT FROST, Range-Finding
                    Design
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, London, 1802
    JOHN MILTON, [When I consider how my light is spent]
    ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, [When our two souls stand up]
    CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, In an Artist’s Studio
    EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, [What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why]
    GWEN HARWOOD, In the Park
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun]
    BILLY COLLINS, Sonnet

    Reading More Poetry
    W. H. AUDEN, Musée des Beaux Arts
                    In Memory of W. B. Yeats
    WILLIAM BLAKE, The Lamb
                    The Tiger
                    The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Innocence)
                    The Chimney Sweeper (from Songs of Experience)
    ROBERT BROWNING, My Last Duchess
    SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Kubla Khan
    COUNTEE CULLEN, Yet Do I Marvel
    EMILY DICKINSON, [Because I could not stop for Death—]
                    [I stepped from Plank to Plank]
                    [We do not play on Graves—]
                    [The Brain—is wider than the Sky—]
                    [She dealt her pretty words like Blades—]
                    [Wild Nights—Wild Nights!]
                    [My Life had stood—a Loaded Gun—]
                    [After great pain, a formal feeling comes—]
    JOHN DONNE, [Death, be not proud]
                    Song
                    A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
    PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, Sympathy
                    We Wear the Mask
    T. S. ELIOT, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
    ROBERT FROST, The Road Not Taken
                    Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
                    Home Burial
    THOMAS GRAY, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
    ANGELINA GRIMKÉ, Tenebris
    ROBERT HAYDEN, The Whipping
                    Frederick Douglass
    SEAMUS HEANEY, Digging
                    Punishment
    GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, God’s Grandeur
                    The Windhover
    LANGSTON HUGHES, Harlem
                    The Negro Speaks of Rivers
    BEN JONSON, [Come, my Celia, let us prove]
    JOHN KEATS, Ode to a Nightingale
                    Ode on a Grecian Urn
    GALWAY KINNELL, Blackberry Eating
    ROBERT LOWELL, Skunk Hour
    CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
    ANDREW MARVELL, The Garden
    CLAUDE MCKAY, The Harlem Dancer
                    The White House
    PAT MORA, Elena
                    Gentle Communion
    SYLVIA PLATH, Daddy
                    Lady Lazarus
    EZRA POUND, In a Station of the Metro
                    A Virginal
    SIR WALTER RALEIGH, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd
    JOHN CROWE RANSOM, Bells for John Whiteside’s Daughter
    ADRIENNE RICH, Storm Warnings
                    History
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Not marble, nor the gilded monuments]
    WALLACE STEVENS, The Emperor of Ice-Cream
                    Anecdote of the Jar
    ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, Tears, Idle Tears
                    Ulysses
    DYLAN THOMAS, Fern Hill
    WALT WHITMAN, Facing West from California’s Shores
                    I Hear America Singing
                    A Noiseless Patient Spider
    RICHARD WILBUR, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World
    WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey, On Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour, July 13, 1798
    W. B. YEATS, The Lake Isle of Innisfree
                    The Second Coming
                    Leda and the Swan
                    Sailing to Byzantium

    Biographical Sketches: Poets

    Drama

    Drama: Reading, Responding, Writing
    READING DRAMA
    SUSAN GLASPELL, Trifles
    TOM STOPPARD, The Real Inspector Hound
    RESPONDING TO DRAMA
    SAMPLE WRITING: Annotating a play
    SAMPLE WRITING: Reading notes on Trifles
    WRITING ABOUT DRAMA
    SAMPLE WRITING: LINDA DURAI, Reading a “Whodunnit?”: Stage Directions and Repetition in The Real Inspector Hound

    Understanding the Text
    14 ELEMENTS OF DRAMA
    CHARACTER
    PLOT AND STRUCTURE
    STAGES, SETS, AND SETTING
    TONE, LANGUAGE, AND SYMBOL
    THEME
    HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll House
    AUGUST WILSON, The Piano Lesson

    Reading More Drama
    LORRAINE HANSBERRY, A Raisin in the Sun
    ARTHUR MILLER, Death of a Salesman
    WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet
    SOPHOCLES, Antigone

    Biographical Sketches: Playwrights

    Writing about Literature
    15 PARAPHRASE, SUMMARY, DESCRIPTION
    16 THE ELEMENTS OF THE ESSAY
    17 THE WRITING PROCESS
    18 THE RESEARCH ESSAY
    19 QUOTATION, CITATION, AND DOCUMENTATION
    20 SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER: RICHARD GIBSON, Keeping the Sabbath Separately: Emily Dickinson’s Rebellious Faith

    Critical Approaches
    Glossary
    Permissions Acknowledgments
    Index of Authors
    Index of Titles and First Lines
    Index of Literary Terms