Alison Booth (Editor)Kelly J. Mays (Editor)

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The Norton Introduction to Literature

 

    *New to the Tenth Edition

    INTRODUCTION


    1. What Is Literature?
      1. JOHN KEATS, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer
    2. Literary versus Pragmatic Reading
    3. Why Read Literature? Why Study It?
    4. Literary Terminology
      1. Genre, Subgenre, and Kind

    FICTION


    Reading, Responding, Writing

    1. ANONYMOUS, The Elephant in the Village of the Blind
    2. LINDA BREWER, 20/20
    3. *MARJANE SATRAPI, From Persepolis
    4. RAYMOND CARVER, Cathedral
    5. *Sample Writing: Wesley Rupton, notes and response paper on Raymond Carver’s “Cathedral”
    6. Sample Writing: Bethany Qualls, A Narrator’s Blindness in Raymond Carver’s “Cathedral”
    7. *Telling Stories: An Album
      1. SHERMAN ALEXIE, Flight Patterns
      2. GRACE PALEY, A Conversation with My Father
      3. *LARA VAPNYAR, Puffed Rice and Meatballs

    Understanding the Text

    1. Plot

    1. *JACOB and WILHELM GRIMM, The Little Shroud
    2. GUY DE MAUPASSANT, The Jewelry
    3. JAMES BALDWIN, Sonny’s Blues
    4. EDITH WHARTON, Roman Fever
    5. MARGARET ATWOOD, Happy Endings
    6. *Initiation Stories: An Album
      1. *MAX APPLE, Stepdaughters
      2. TONI CADE BAMBARA, Gorilla, My Love
      3. ALICE MUNRO, Boys and Girls
      4. *JOHN UPDIKE, A & P

    2. Narration and Point of View

    1. EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Cask of Amontillado
    2. ERNEST HEMINGWAY, Hills Like White Elephants
    3. LORRIE MOORE, How
    4. JAMAICA KINCAID, Girl

    3. Character

    1. *CHARLOTTE BRONTË, From Jane Eyre
    2. WILLIAM FAULKNER, Barn Burning
    3. TONI MORRISON, Recitatif
    4. HA JIN, In Broad Daylight
    5. *TOBY LITT, The Monster

    4. Setting

    1. *ITALO CALVINO, From Invisible Cities
    2. *MARGARET MITCHELL, From Gone with the Wind
    3. *ALICE RANDALL, From The Wind Done Gone
    4. ANTON CHEKHOV, The Lady with the Dog
    5. KATHERINE ANNE PORTER, Flowering Judas
    6. AMY TAN, A Pair of Tickets
    7. *Student Writing: Stephen Matview, Setting in “The Lady with the Dog”
    8. *Suburbia: An Album
      1. JOHN CHEEVER, The Country Husband
      2. *HANIF KUREISHI, Long Ago Yesterday
      3. MICHAEL CHABON, The Lost World

    5. Symbol and Figurative Language

    1. *NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Birthmark
    2. A. S. BYATT, The Thing in the Forest
    3. EDWIDGE DANTICAT, A Wall of Fire Rising

    6. Theme

    1. *AESOP, The Two Crabs
    2. STEPHEN CRANE, The Open Boat
    3. GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings
    4. LOUISE ERDRICH, Love Medicine
    5. YASUNARA KAWABATA, The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket
    6. *Encounters across Cultures: An Album
    7. BHARATI MUKHERJEE, The Management of Grief
    8. JHUMPA LAHIRI, Interpreter of Maladies
    9. *WILLIAM SAIDI, The Nightmare

    *7. The Longer Work

    1. HERMAN MELVILLE, Bartleby, the Scrivener
    2. *FRANZ KAFKA, The Metamorphosis

    Exploring Contexts

    8. The Author’s Work: Flannery O’Connor

    1. A Good Man Is Hard to Find
    2. *Good Country People
    3. Everything That Rises Must Converge
    4. Passages from Essays and Letters
    5. *MARY GORDON, From Flannery’s Kiss
    6. *ANN E. REUMAN, From Revolting Fictions
    7. *EILEEN POLLACK, From Flannery O’Connor and the New Criticism

    *9. The Author’s Work: James Joyce’s Dubliners

    1. Araby
    2. *Eveline
    3. *The Dead
    4. James Joyce and Dubliners: A Chronology
    5. Passages from Early Writings and Letters
      1. *From Drama and Life
      2. *From Ireland, Island of Saints and Sages
      3. *“Gas from a Burner”
    6. *PATRICK A. MCCARTHY, From Rejoycing: New Readings of Dubliners
    7. *ROBERT SCHOLES, From Counterparts
    8. *DAVID G. WRIGHT, From Interactive Stories in Dubliners

    *10. Cultural and Historical Contexts: Women in Turn-of-the-Century America

    1. KATE CHOPIN, The Story of an Hour
    2. CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, The Yellow Wallpaper
    3. SUSAN GLASPELL, A Jury of Her Peers
    4. CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, From Similar Cases
      1. From Women and Economics
    5. *BARBARA BOYD, Heart and Home Talks: Politics and Milk
    6. *MRS. ARTHUR LYTTELTON, From Women and Their Work
    7. *RHETA CHILDE DORR, What Eight Million Women Want
    8. *CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, How I Came To Write “The Yellow Wallpaper”
    9. *THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, The Rest Cure
      1. *Egotism of the Rest Cure

    11. Cultural and Historical Contexts: The Jazz Age

    1. F. SCOTT FITZGERALD, Babylon Revisited
      1. From Echoes of the Jazz Age
    2. MALCOLM COWLEY, From Exile’s Return: A Literary Odyssey of the 1920s
    3. THE NEW YORK TIMES, Stocks Collapse in 16,410,030-Share Day
      1. Crowds at Tickers See Fortunes Wane
      2. Women Traders Going Back to Bridge Games
    4. ERNEST R. GROVES, From Social Problems of the Family
    5. V. F. CALVERTON, From The Bankruptcy of Marriage

    12. Critical Contexts: William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily

    1. WILLIAM FAULKNER, A Rose for Emily
    2. *CLEANTH BROOKS, JR., and ROBERT PENN WARREN, From Understanding Fiction
    3. *C. W. M. JOHNSON, Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”
    4. *RAY B. WEST, JR., Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”
    5. *WILLIAM VAN O’CONNOR, From The State of Faulkner Criticism”
    6. *FLOYD C. WATKINS, The Structure of “A Rose for Emily”
    7. *T. J. STAFFORD, From Tobe’s Significance in “A Rose for Emily”
    8. JUDITH FETTERLEY, From A Rose for “A Rose for Emily”
    9. *THOMAS KLEIN, The Ghostly Voice of Gossip in Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”
    10. *LAWRENCE R. RODGERS, The Narrator/Detective in Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily”
    11. Student Writing: Ann Warren, The Tragic Plot of “A Rose for Emily”

    Reading More Fiction

    1. MARGARET ATWOOD, Scarlet Ibis
    2. ANN BEATTIE, Janus
    3. AMBROSE BIERCE, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
    4. JORGE LOUIS BORGES, The Garden of Forking Paths
    5. RALPH ELLISON, King of the Bingo Game
    6. D. H. LAWRENCE, The Rocking Horse Winner
    7. BOBBIE ANN MASON, Shiloh
    8. JOYCE CAROL OATES, The Lady with the Pet Dog
    9. SALMAN RUSHDIE, The Prophet’s Hair
    10. EUDORA WELTY, Why I Live at the P.O.
    11. WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Use of Force

    Biographical Sketches: Fiction

    POETRY


    Reading, Responding, Writing

    Reading

    1. ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, How Do I Love Thee?
    2. JAROLD RAMSAY, The Tally Stick
    3. LINDA PASTAN, love poem
    4. LIZ ROSENBERG, Married Love

    Responding

    1. BEN JONSON, On My First Son
    2. HOWARD NEMEROV, The Vacuum
    3. RITA DOVE, Fifth Grade Autobiography
    4. ANNE SEXTON, The Fury of Overshoes
    5. SEAMUS HEANEY, Mid-Term Break
    6. APHRA BEHN, On Her Loving Two Equally

    Writing

    1. Sample Writing: Multiplying by Dividing in Aphra Behn’s “On Her Loving Two Equally”
    2. Sample Writing: Stephen Bordland, response paper on Auden’s “Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone”

    *Romantic Love: An Album

    1. EZRA POUND, The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter
    2. W. H. AUDEN, [Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone]
    3. ANNE BRADSTREET, To My Dear and Loving Husband
    4. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Let me not to the marriage of true minds]
    5. SHARON OLDS, Last Night
    6. JOHN DONNE, The Sun Rising
    7. EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, [Women have loved before as I love now]
      1. [I, being born a woman and distressed]
    8. ROBERT BROWNING, Porphyria’s Lover
    9. MARGARET CAVENDISH, DUCHESS OF NEWCASTLE, Of the Theme of Love

    Understanding the Text

    13. Theme and Tone

    1. Listening to Tone
      1. MARGE PIERCY, Barbie Doll
      2. W. D. SNODGRASS, Leaving the Motel
      3. THOM GUNN, In Time of Plague
      4. ETHERIDGE KNIGHT, Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane
    2. Setting as Theme
      1. WILLIAM BLAKE, London
    3. Comparing Two or More Poems on Similar Topics
      1. MAXINE KUMIN, Woodchucks
      2. ADRIENNE RICH, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers
    4. *Family: An Album
      1. GALWAY KINNELL, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps
      2. EMILY GROSHOLZ, Eden
      3. PAUL MULDOON, Milkweed and Monarch
      4. ROBERT HAYDEN, Those Winter Sundays
      5. *CLAUDIA EMERSON, Driving Glove
      6. SEAMUS HEANEY, Mother of the Groom
      7. JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA, Green Chile
      8. KELLY CHERRY, Alzheimer’s
      9. ANDREW HUDGINS, Begotten
      10. SIMON J. ORTIZ, My Father’s Song
      11. ALBERTO ALVARO RÍOS, Mi Abuelo
      12. *CHARLES R. FELDSTEIN, Gravity

    14. Speaker: Whose Voice Do We Hear?

    1. THOMAS HARDY, The Ruined Maid
    2. X. J. KENNEDY, In a Prominent Bar in Secaucus One Day
    3. MARGARET ATWOOD, Death of a Young Son by Drowning
    4. ROBERT BROWNING, Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister
    5. DOROTHY PARKER, A Certain Lady
    6. Author Versus Speaker
      1. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways
      2. AUDRE LORDE, Hanging Fire
      3. ROBERT BURNS, To a Louse
      4. GWENDOLYN BROOKS, We Real Cool
      5. WALT WHITMAN, [I celebrate myself, and sing myself]
      6. YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, Tu Do Street
    7. *Exploring Gender: An Album
      1. RICHARD LOVELACE, Song: To Lucasta, Going to the Wars
      2. MARY, LADY CHUDLEIGH, To the Ladies
      3. WILFRED OWEN, Disabled
      4. AMY LOWELL, The Lonely Wife
      5. ELIZABETH BISHOP, Exchanging Hats
      6. PAULETTE JILES, Paper Matches
      7. MARGE PIERCY, What’s That Smell in the Kitchen?
      8. DAVID WAGONER, My Father’s Garden
      9. JUDITH ORTIZ COFER, The Changeling
      10. LIZ ROSENBERG, The Silence of Women
      11. *TONY HOAGLAND, Dickhead
      12. MARIE HOWE, Practicing
      13. *VICTORIA REDEL, Bedecked
      14. *BOB HICOK, O my pa-pa
      15. *AFAA MICHAEL WEAVER, American Income

    15. Situation and Setting: What Happens? Where? When?

    1. Situations: Caring for Children
      1. RITA DOVE, Daystar
      2. LINDA PASTAN, To a Daughter Leaving Home
    2. Settings: Historical Contexts
      1. JOHN MILTON, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont
      2. MATTHEW ARNOLD, Dover Beach
      3. JOHN BETJEMAN, In Westminster Abbey
    3. Settings: In the Morning
      1. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Full many a glorious morning have I seen]
      2. JOHN DONNE, The Good-Morrow
      3. SYLVIA PLATH, Morning Song
      4. BILLY COLLINS, Morning
      5. AUGUST KLEINZAHLER, Aubade on East 12th Street
      6. JONATHAN SWIFT, A Description of the Morning
      7. JAMES DICKEY, Cherrylog Road
    4. Two Carpe Diem Poems
      1. JOHN DONNE, The Flea
      2. ANDREW MARVELL, To His Coy Mistress
    5. Poems of Varied Situations and Settings
      1. EMILY BRONTË, The Night-Wind
      2. SYLVIA PLATH, Point Shirley
      3. MARY JO SALTER, Welcome to Hiroshima
      4. *JOSHUA CLOVER, The Nevada Glassworks
      5. DEREK WALCOTT, Midsummer
      6. MARY OLIVER, Singapore
      7. EARLE BIRNEY, Irapuato
    6. *Cultural Homelands: An Album
      1. PHILLIS WHEATLEY, On Being Brought from Africa to America
      2. MAYA ANGELOU, Africa
      3. DEREK WALCOTT, A Far Cry from Africa
      4. ELIZABETH ALEXANDER, West Indian Primer
      5. AGHA SHAHID ALI, Postcard from Kashmir

    16. Language

    1. Precision and Ambiguity, Denotation and Connotation
      1. SARA CLEGHORN, [The golf links lie so near the mill]
      2. ANNE FINCH, COUNTESS OF WINCHELSEA, There’s No To-morrow
      3. CHARLES BERNSTEIN, Of Time and the Line
      4. WALTER DE LA MARE, Slim Cunning Hands
      5. THEODORE ROETHKE, My Papa’s Waltz
    2. Word Order and Word Placement
      1. SHARON OLDS, Sex without Love
      2. YVOR WINTERS, At the San Francisco Airport
      3. MARTHA COLLINS, Lies
      4. EMILY DICKINSON, [I dwell in Possibility—]
      5. WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Red Wheelbarrow
        1. This Is Just to Say
      6. GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Pied Beauty
      7. E. E. CUMMINGS, [in Just—]
      8. BOB PERELMAN, The Masque of Rhyme
      9. LI-YOUNG LEE, Persimmons
      10. *BARBARA HAMBY, Ode to American English
    3. Picturing: The Languages of Description
      1. JEANNE MARIE BEAUMONT, Rorschach
      2. OSCAR WILDE, Symphony in Yellow
      3. RICHARD WILBUR, The Beautiful Changes
      4. JAMES MERRILL, body
      5. ANDREW MARVELL, On a Drop of Dew
      6. *LYNN POWELL, Kind of Blue
    4. Metaphor and Personification
      1. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [That time of year thou mayest in me behold]
      2. LINDA PASTAN, Marks
    5. Simile and Analogy
      1. ROBERT BURNS, A Red, Red Rose
      2. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?]
      3. ANONYMOUS, The Twenty-third Psalm
      4. JOHN DONNE, [Batter my heart, three-personed God]
        1. The Canonization
      5. DAVID FERRY, At the Hospital
      6. RANDALL JARRELL, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
      7. WILFRED OWEN, Dulce et Decorum Est
      8. *HARRYETTE MULLEN, Wipe That Simile Off Your Aphasia
    6. Symbol
      1. JAMES DICKEY, The Leap
      2. EDMUND WALLER, Song
      3. D. H. LAWRENCE, I Am like a Rose
      4. DOROTHY PARKER, One Perfect Rose
      5. WILLIAM BLAKE, The Sick Rose
      6. SHARON OLDS, Leningrad Cemetery, Winter of 1941
      7. ROBERT FROST, Fireflies in the Garden
      8. STEPHEN DUNN, Dancing with God
      9. ADRIENNE RICH, Diving into the Wreck
      10. ROO BORSON, After a Death
      11. DENISE LEVERTOV, Wedding-Ring

    17. The Sounds of Poetry

    1. Sound Poems: Some Examples
      1. HELEN CHASIN, The Word Plum
      2. MONA VAN DUYN, What the Motorcycle Said
      3. KENNETH FEARING, Dirge
      4. ALEXANDER POPE, Sound and Sense
    2. Poetic Meter
      1. SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Metrical Feet
    3. Practicing Scansion (Reading Meter)
      1. ANONYMOUS, [There was a young girl from St. Paul]
      2. ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, From The Charge of the Light Brigade
      3. SIR JOHN SUCKLING, Song
      4. JOHN DRYDEN, To the Memory of Mr. Oldham
    4. Scanning Meter: A Selection of Poems
      1. EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Raven
      2. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore]
      3. JAMES MERRILL, Watching the Dance
      4. GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Spring and Fall
      5. LEE ANN BROWN, Foolproof Loofah
      6. EMILY DICKINSON, [A narrow Fellow in the Grass]
      7. *CATHERINE BOWMAN, Mr. X
    5. *Words and Music: An Album
      1. THOMAS CAMPION, When to Her Lute Corinna Sings
      2. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Spring
      3. AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE TOPLADY, A Prayer, Living and Dying
      4. ROBERT HAYDEN, Homage to the Empress of the Blues
      5. MICHAEL HARPER, Dear John, Dear Coltrane
      6. BOB DYLAN, Mr. Tambourine Man
      7. WILLIE PERDOMO, 123rd Street Rap

    18. Internal Structure

    1. Narrative Poems
      1. EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, Mr. Flood’s Party
    2. Dramatic Poems
      1. HOWARD NEMEROV, The Goose Fish
      2. PHILIP LARKIN, Church Going
      3. PAT MORA, Sonrisas
    3. Other Types of Poetic Structure
      1. SHARON OLDS, The Victims
      2. ANONYMOUS, Sir Patrick Spens
      3. WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Dance
      4. EMILY DICKINSON, [The Wind begun to knead the Grass—]
      5. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Th’ expense of spirit in a waste of shame]
      6. CATHY SONG, Heaven
      7. STEPHEN DUNN, Poetry
      8. PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ode to the West Wind
      9. *PAUL CELAN, Death Fugue
      10. *Sample Writing: Lindsay Gibson, Philip Larkin’s “Church Going”

    19. External Form

    1. Stanzas
      1. DYLAN THOMAS, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
      2. MARIANNE MOORE, Poetry
      3. ELIZABETH BISHOP, Sestina
      4. ISHMAEL REED, beware: do not read this poem
      5. ARCHIBALD MACLEISH, Ars Poetica
      6. DUDLEY RANDALL, Ballad of Birmingham
    2. The Sonnet
      1. HENRY CONSTABLE, [My lady’s presence makes the roses red]
      2. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Nuns Fret Not
      3. DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI, A Sonnet Is a Moment’s Monument
      4. JOHN KEATS, On the Sonnet
        1. On the Grasshopper and the Cricket
        2. On Seeing the Elgin Marbles
      5. GWENDOLYN BROOKS, First Fight. Then Fiddle.
      6. EMMA LAZARUS, The New Colossus
      7. ROBERT FROST, Range-Finding
        1. Design
      8. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, London, 1802
      9. JOHN MILTON, [When I consider how my light is spent]
      10. ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, [When our two souls stand up]
      11. CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, In an Artist’s Studio
      12. EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, [What lips my lips have kissed]
        1. [I shall forget you presently, my dear]
      13. GWEN HARWOOD, In the Park
      14. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun]
      15. DIANE ACKERMAN, Sweep Me through Your Many-Chambered Heart
      16. BILLY COLLINS, Sonnet
      17. JUNE JORDAN, Something Like a Sonnet for Phillis Miracle Wheatley
      18. SANDRA GILBERT, Sonnet: The Ladies’ Home Journal
    3. The Way a Poem Looks
      1. E. E. CUMMINGS, [l(a]
      2. FRANKLIN P. ADAMS, Composed in the Composing Room
      3. E. E. CUMMINGS, [Buffalo Bill’s]
      4. STEVIE SMITH, The Jungle Husband
      5. GEORGE HERBERT, Easter Wings
      6. *CHARLES H. WEBB, The Shape of History
      7. *MAY SWENSON, Women
      8. EARLE BIRNEY, Anglosaxon Street

    20. The Longer Work

    1. *From Beowulf
    2. *SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
    3. *T. S. ELIOT, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
    4. *Student Writing: Dan Douglas, The Form of “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”

    Exploring Contexts

    21. The Author’s Work: Adrienne Rich

    1. At a Bach Concert
    2. Storm Warnings
    3. Living in Sin
    4. Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law
    5. Planetarium
    6. Two Songs
    7. For the Record
    8. [My mouth hovers across your breasts]
    9. History
    10. Modotti
    11. Personal Reflections
      1. From When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-vision
      2. How Does a Poet Put Bread on the Table?
      3. From A Communal Poetry
      4. Why I Refused the National Medal for the Arts
    12. Chronology
    13. *Sample Writing: Melissa Makolin, Out-Sonneting Shakespeare: An Examination of Edna St. Vincent Millay’s Use of the Shakespearean Sonnet Form
    14. *Emily Dickinson: An Album
      1. [Because I could not stop for Death—]
      2. [I stepped from Plank to Plank]
      3. [We do not play on Graves—]
      4. [The Brain—is wider than the Sky—]
      5. [She dealt her pretty words like Blades—]
      6. [Wild Nights—Wild Nights!]
      7. [My Life had stood—a Loaded Gun—]
      8. [After great pain, a formal feeling comes—]
      9. WENDY COPE, Emily Dickinson
      10. HART CRANE, To Emily Dickinson
      11. Chronology
    15. *W. B. Yeats: An Album
      1. The Lake Isle of Innisfree
      2. All Things Can Tempt Me
      3. Easter 1916
      4. The Second Coming
      5. Leda and the Swan
      6. Sailing to Byzantium
      7. Byzantium
      8. W. H. Auden, In Memory of W. B. Yeats
      9. Chronology
    16. *Pat Mora: An Album
      1. Elena
      2. Gentle Communion
      3. Mothers and Daughters
      4. La Migra
      5. Ode to Adobe
      6. Chronology

    *22. The Author’s Work: William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience

    1. Songs of Innocence
      1. *Introduction
      2. *The Ecchoing Green
      3. Holy Thursday
      4. The Lamb
      5. *The Chimney Sweeper
    2. Songs of Experience
      1. *Introduction
      2. The Tyger
      3. *The Garden of Love
      4. *The Chimney Sweeper
      5. Holy Thursday
    3. *Facsimile of Songs of Innocence and of Experience
    4. William Blake and His Times: A Chronology
      1. *MORTON D. PALEY, From Twentieth-Century Interpretations of Songs of Innocence and Experience
      2. *ANDREW LINCOLN, From William Blake: Songs of Innocence and of Experience
      3. *ROBERT F. GLECKNER, From Point of View and Context in Blake’s Songs
      4. *ALICIA OSTRIKER, From Vision and Verse in William Blake

    23. Literary Tradition as Context

    1. Echo and Allusion
      1. BEN JONSON, [Come, my Celia, let us prove]
      2. HOWARD NEMEROV, Boom!
      3. MARIANNE MOORE, Love in America?
      4. ROBERT HOLLANDER, You Too? Me Too—Why Not? Soda Pop
      5. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, [Not marble, nor the gilded monuments]
    2. Imitating and Answering
      1. CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
      2. SIR WALTER RALEIGH, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd
      3. *HARRYETTE MULLEN, Dim Lady
      4. *ANNE LAUINGER, Marvell Noir
      5. E. E. CUMMINGS, [(ponder; darling, these busted statues]
      6. KENNETH KOCH, Variations on a Theme by William Carlos Williams
      7. DESMOND SKIRROW, Ode on a Grecian Urn Summarized
      8. ANTHONY HECHT, The Dover Bitch
    3. Poetic “Kinds”: Haiku
      1. CHIYOJO, [Whether astringent]
      2. BASHŌ, [A village without bells—]
        1. [This road—]
      3. BUSON, [Coolness]
        1. [Listening to the moon]
      4. SEIFŪ, [The faces of dolls]
      5. LAFCADIO HEARN, [Old pond—]
      6. CLARA A. WALSH, [An old-time pond]
      7. EARL MINER, [The still old pond]
      8. ALLEN GINSBERG, [The old pond]
      9. BABETTE DEUTSCH, [The falling flower]
      10. ETHERIDGE KNIGHT, [Eastern guard tower]
      11. ALLEN GINSBERG, [Looking over my shoulder]
      12. RICHARD WRIGHT, [In the falling snow]
      13. JAMES A. EMANUEL, Ray Charles
    4. Cultural Belief and Tradition
      1. MIRIAM WADDINGTON, Ulysses Embroidered
      2. ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, Ulysses
      3. SYLVIA PLATH, Lady Lazarus
      4. *WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
      5. *EAVAN BOLAND, Atlantis—A Lost Sonnet
      6. ALBERTO ALVARO RÍOS, Advice to a First Cousin
      7. LOUISE ERDRICH, Jacklight
    5. The Garden of Eden: An Album
      1. JOHN HOLLANDER, Adam’s Task
      2. *MARJORIE PICKTHALL, Adam and Eve
      3. SUSAN DONNELLY, Eve Names the Animals
      4. URSULA K. LE GUIN, She Unnames Them
      5. *ANI DI FRANCO, Adam and Eve (lyrics)

    24. Cultural and Historical Contexts: The Harlem Renaissance

    1. ARNA BONTEMPS, A Black Man Talks of Reaping
    2. COUNTEE CULLEN, Yet Do I Marvel
      1. Saturday’s Child
      2. From the Dark Tower
    3. ANGELINA GRIMKE, The Black Finger
      1. Tenebris
    4. LANGSTON HUGHES, Harlem
      1. The Weary Blues
      2. The Negro Speaks of Rivers
      3. I, Too
    5. HELENE JOHNSON, Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem
    6. CLAUDE MCKAY, Harlem Shadows
      1. If We Must Die
      2. The Tropics in New York
      3. The Harlem Dancer
      4. The White House
    7. JAMES WELDON JOHNSON, From the preface to The Book of American Negro Poetry
    8. ALAIN LOCKE, From The New Negro
    9. RUDOLPH FISHER, The Caucasian Storms Harlem
    10. W. E. B. DU BOIS, From Two Novels
    11. ZORA NEALE HURSTON,How It Feels to Be Colored Me
    12. LANGSTON HUGHEs, From The Big Sea

    25. Critical Contexts: Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy”

    1. SYLVIA PLATH, Daddy
    2. GEORGE STEINER, From Dying Is an Art
    3. IRVING HOWE, From The Plath Celebration: A Partial Dissent
    4. A. ALVAREZ, From Sylvia Plath
    5. JUDITH KROLL, From Rituals of Exorcism: “Daddy”
    6. MARY LYNN BROE, From Protean Poetic
    7. MARGARET HOMANS, From A Feminine Tradition
    8. PAMELA J. ANNAS, From A Disturbance in Mirrors
    9. STEVEN GOULD AXELROD, From Jealous Gods

    Reading More Poetry

    1. W. H. AUDEN, Musée des Beaux Arts
    2. GWENDOLYN BROOKS, To the Diaspora
    3. ROBERT BROWNING, My Last Duchess
    4. SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Kubla Khan
    5. JOHN DONNE, [Death, be not proud]
      1. Song
      2. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
    6. PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, Sympathy
      1. We Wear the Mask
    7. ROBERT FROST, The Road Not Taken
      1. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
      2. *Home Burial
    8. ALLEN GINSBERG, Velocity of Money
    9. THOMAS GRAY, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
    10. ROBERT HAYDEN, The Whipping
      1. Frederick Douglass
    11. SEAMUS HEANEY, Digging
      1. Punishment
    12. GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, God’s Grandeur
      1. The Windhover
    13. JOHN KEATS, Ode to a Nightingale
      1. Ode on a Grecian Urn
      2. To Autumn
    14. GALWAY KINNELL, Blackberry Eating
    15. ROBERT LOWELL, Skunk Hour
    16. ANDREW MARVELL, The Garden
    17. SYLVIA PLATH, Barren Woman
      1. Black Rook in Rainy Weather
    18. EZRA POUND, In a Station of the Metro
      1. A Virginal
    19. JOHN CROWE RANSOM, Bells for John Whiteside’s Daughter
    20. THEODORE ROETHKE, I Knew a Woman
      1. The Waking
    21. WALLACE STEVENS, The Idea of Order at Key West
      1. The Emperor of Ice-Cream
      2. Anecdote of the Jar
    22. *ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, The Lotos-Eaters
      1. Tears, Idle Tears
    23. DYLAN THOMAS, Fern Hill
    24. WALT WHITMAN, Facing West from California’s Shores
      1. I Hear America Singing
      2. A Noiseless Patient Spider
    25. RICHARD WILBUR, Love Calls Us to the Things of This World
    26. WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey

    Biographical Sketches: Poets

    DRAMA


    Drama: Reading, Responding, Writing

    1. SUSAN GLASPELL, Trifles
    2. TOM STOPPARD, The Real Inspector Hound
    3. *Sample Writing: Linda Durai, Reading a “Whodunnit?”: Stage Directions and Repetition in The Real Inspector Hound

    Understanding the Text

    26. Elements of Drama

    1. HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll House
    2. AUGUST WILSON, The Piano Lesson

    27. Tragedy and Comedy

    1. SOPHOCLES, Oedipus the King
    2. OSCAR WILDE, The Importance of Being Earnest

    Exploring Contexts

    28. The Author’s Work as Context: William Shakespeare

    1. A Midsummer Night’s Dream
    2. Hamlet

    *29. Performance as Context

    1. *SAMUEL BECKETT, Act without Words
    2. TENNESSEE WILLIAMS, A Streetcar Named Desire
    3. *SUZAN-LORI PARKS, From 365 Days / 365 Plays

    30. Cultural and Historical Context

    1. LORRAINE HANSBERRY, A Raisin in the Sun
    2. WOLE SOYINKA, Death and the King’s Horseman
    3. RICHARD WRIGHT, From Twelve Million Black Voices: A Folk History of the Negro in the United States
    4. EARL E. THORPE, From Africa in the Thought of Negro Americans
    5. PHAON GOLDMAN, From The Significance of African Freedom for the Negro American
    6. STOKELY CARMICHAEL and CHARLES V. HAMILTON, From Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America
    7. ROBERT BLAUNER, From Internal Colonialism and Ghetto Revolt
    8. HENRY JOHN DREWAL, JOHN PEMBERTON III, and ROWLAND ABIODUN, From Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought

    31. Critical Contexts: Sophocles’ Antigone

    1. SOPHOCLES, Antigone
    2. RICHARD C. JEBB, From The Antigone of Sophocles
    3. MAURICE BOWRA, From Sophoclean Tragedy
    4. BERNARD KNOX, Introduction to The Three Theban Plays
    5. MARTHA C. NUSSBAUM, From The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy
    6. REBECCA W. BUSHNELL, From Prophesying Tragedy: Sign and Voice in Sophocles’ Theban Plays
    7. MARY WHITLOCK BLUNDELL, From Helping Friends and Harming Enemies: A Study in Sophocles and Greek Ethics
    8. *Student Writing: Jackie Izawa, The Two Faces of Antigone

    Reading More Drama

    1. ANTON CHEKHOV, The Cherry Orchard
    2. ARTHUR MILLER, Death of a Salesman
    3. MARGARET EDSON, Wit
    4. PAULA VOGEL, How I Learned to Drive

    Biographical Sketches: Playwrights

    Writing about Literature

    32 Paraphrase, Summary, and Description

    33 The Elements of the Essay

    34 The Writing Process

    35 The Research Essay

    36 Quotation, Citation, and Documentation

    37 Sample Research Paper

    Critical Approaches